liping1019 发表于 2008-7-31 11:16:07

英汉环境科学与工程词典

一直想着多学习英语,想这怎么学。我现在想出来一个办法,既能学习英语,又能与更多的人分享成果的事情——把英文词典里面的单词和解释都用电脑敲一次。现在来给更多的人分享成果!

liping1019 发表于 2008-7-31 19:24:15

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abatement of the oil mist from cooking 厨房油烟净化

abiotic 无生命的,非生物的

abiotic environment 非生物环境

abiotic factors 非生物因素
It indicate nonliving factors that influence the life and activities of an organism.

absolute density 绝对密度
It means the individual number of organism or species biomass unit area or space.

absolute error 绝对误差

absolute humidity 绝对湿度

absolute lethal dose LD100; absolute lethal concentration LC100绝对致死剂量或浓度

absorbability of soil 土壤吸收性能

absorbed dose 吸收量
It refers to the quantity in blood for pollutants entering organism, and also is the ratio of the average energy of matter given by ionization radiation in one volume element and the mass of matter in this volume element.

absorber 吸收装置

absorption 吸收

absorption of fluoric gas by alkali 碱吸收含氟废气
Absorption of fluoric gas by alkali is the purification method to use alkali solution, such as Na2CO3, NH3 or lime cream to absorb fluorides, HF and SiF 4.

absorption of fluoric gas by water 水吸收含氟废气
Absorption of fluoric gas by water is the purification method to use water as absorbent to absorb fluorides HF, SiF 4 in waste gas.

absorption of hydrogen sulfide by basic salt solution 碱性盐溶液吸收控制硫化氢
It is the purification method to use basic salt solution as absorbent to absorb hydrogen sulfide.

absorption of hydrogen sulfide by weak alkali solution 弱碱性吸收控制硫化氢
It is the purification method to use the property that weak alkali solution can absorb acid gas or react with acid gas to remover hydrogen sulfide.

absorption of odor 臭气吸收
It is a treatment method to remove odor by liquid absorbent..
absorption of organic gas
It is a purification treatment to use absorptive liquid to absorb concentrated organic gas.

absorption structure of perforated panel 穿孔板吸声结构

absorption tower technological design 吸收塔工艺设计

absorptive muffler 吸收式消音器
An absorptive muffler is one whose noise reduction is determined mainly by the presence of fibrous or porousmaterials, which absorb the sound.

acaricide 杀螨剂

accelerant aeration method 加速曝气法
It is one of activated sludge processes to utilize the rising period of microorganism growth rate to treat wastewater.

accelerated cost recovery system(ACRS) 加速成本回收制
ACRS means a depreciation method applied to limited partnership assets placed in service in 1981 or before.

accelerating clarifier 加速澄清池
It is the water clarifier to combine mixing, flocculating and settling water treatment processes in a tank so as to increase its treatment efficiency.

accelerator 加速器
It is a device to produce particles with high velocity.

accelerometer 加速度计
It is the electromechanical transducer used to measure vibration acceleration.

acceptor model 受体模型

accidental error 偶然误差

acclimation 适应环境/驯化
It means adjustment to slowly changing new conditions.

accumulation 蓄积作用
Accumulation refers to the continuous accumulation of environment pollutants in water or other bodies.

accumulation mode 积聚模
It means a type of distribution of particle size or diameter, whose diameter scope ranges from 0.05 to 2 μm.

accuracy assessment protocol 精确评估方案
It is a part of environmental monitoring programs which consists of major components, such as the response design, the sampling design and analysis.

acetylene residue 电石渣
It is the grey thin sands discharged in the production process using calcium carbide as material.

acid 酸,酸性物质
It means any substance that, when dissolved in water, releases hydrogen ions.

acid and alkaline wastewater 酸碱废水
Acid and alkaline wastewater is the wastewater containing acid or alkali, which is discharged in the process of industrial production.

Acid deposition 酸沉降
The theory of acid deposition contains both “humid deposition” and “dry deposition” illustrates precipitation under PH below 5.6, which includes rainfall, snow, frost, fog, dew and so on. The “dry deposition” is the process of transferring all acid substances in the air to the ground.

acid extraction 酸萃取
It usually means the use of hydrochloric acid to extract heavy metal contaminants from soils.

acid former 酸行成菌

acidic soot 酸性煤烟

acidity 酸度
It means the total amount of the material which can neutralize strong base in water.

acid mine drainage(AMD) 酸矿污水

acidophilic microorganisms 嗜酸微生物
It mainly means the acidophilic bacterium which takes acid as food. It can be used in neutralization process of wastewater and is a wastewater biological treatment.

acid rain 酸雨
Acidic soot is the particles produced incomplete burning of carbonic substances and the solid mixtures coagulated by agglomerated tars.

acoustically excited vibration 声致振动
Acoustically excited vibration means the phenomenon that the component part in the sound field is vibrated due to the excitation of sound wave.

acoustic fatigue 声疲劳
It refers to the split phenomenon of crystalline solid in the action of undulated pressure produced by strong sound wave.

acoustic impedance 声阻抗

acoustic shield 隔声罩
Acoustic shield is the device to insulate effect of noise, which is applicable to contrd high noise of various machines. It is made by sound absorption materials.

Acoustic wave precipitation 声波除尘
The collision, contact and coagulation as well as settlement process to remove dust from air between particles caused by the vibration of acoustic wave is called acoustic wave precipitation.

acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDSA) 艾滋病

activated biofilter 活性生物滤池
Activated biofilter means the sewage treatment process consisting of biological filter, aeration basin and secondary sedimentation basin.

Activated carbon 活性炭
Activated carbon is an extremely adsorbent material used in water treatment to remove organic contaminants, which is produced in a two-stage process: at first, a suitable base material such as wood, peat, vegetable matter, or bone is carbonized by heating the material in the absence of air, and then the carbonized material is activated by heating it in the presence of air, CO2, or stream to burn off any tars it has and to increase its pore size.

activated carbon adsorption 活性炭吸附
It is one of the water treatment processes to use properties of physical and chemical adsorption, oxidation, catalytic oxidation, reduction for activated carbon to remove pollutants in water.

activated carbon filtration 活性炭过滤
Activated carbon filtration is the water filter treatment process using activated carbon as filter material.

activated carbon process of flue of flue gas desulfurization 活性炭吸附法脱硫
Activated carbon process of FGD is the desulfurization method to utilize the adsorptive capability of activated carbon to adsorb and purify SO2 in flue.

activated oxygen 活性氧
It means the reduce product of molecular oxygen with 2-3 electrons, and it is unstable, easily decomposed, and an intermediary with strong oxidization potential.

activated sludge 活性污泥
It is the main function matter in the activated sludge treatment system.

activated sludge culture 活性污泥培养
Activated sludge culture means the process to utilize excrement and urine to feed activated sludge at the beginning of activated sludge biological treatment process.

activated sludge process 活性污泥法
Activated sludge process is the biological treatment technology of sewage whose main medium is activated sludge. By using organics in wastewater as culture medium, the activated sludge process is to cultivate activated sludge consecutively when dissolved oxygen is enough, and then purify wastewater by adsorptive flocculation or oxidated decomposition actions.

activated sludge system 活性污泥系统

activation 活化作用

active alumina 活性氧化铝
It is the porous grain-like alumina, with the ability of selectively adsorbing gas, steam and some liquids. It is a widely used adsorbent in wastewater or waste gas treatment.

active filed shield 主动屏蔽
Active filed shield is to use shield materials to limit electromagnetic energy produced by certain equipment, system or its branch system to stipulated space or to reduce the outside leakage of electromagnetic energy to allowalble degree.

active noise control 有源噪声控制
Active noise control is the technology to control the former noise by secondary sound with opposite phase.

active silica 活性硅土

active vibration reduction 有源减振
Active vibration reduction is the control method of active vibration used to reduce structure vibration.

active volume 有效体积

acute hazards event(AHE) 急性危害事件

acute toxicity 急性毒作用
Acute toxicity is the harm induced when environment pollutants act on human or animal bodies one time or many times within 24 hours of short duration.

adaptation 适应,适应作用
An alteration or adjustment in structure or habits, often hereditary, by which a species or individual improves its condition in relationship to its environment.

adaptive radiation 适应性辐射
It indicates the rapid speciation of a single or a few species to fill many ecological niches.

addiction sewage funguses 嗜污水真菌

adhesion settling 吸持沉降
It is the transfer process in which a pollutant clings to suspended solids in water and then settles with them.

administrative fine 行政罚款

administrative regulations of environment 环境行政法

adsorbent regeneration 吸附再生

adsorption 吸附
It is a diffusional process that involves the transfer of molecules from the gas state into liquid state because of the contaminant concentration gradient between the two phases, and a unit operation that is enhanced by all the factors which normally affects mass transfer. Adsorption is the process by which molecules of a gas or liquid adhere to surface of a solid.

adsorption-biodegradation 吸附-再生降解工艺
Adsorption-biodegradation is a treatment process developed by Germany professor B. Bonhnke in the middle of 1970s. It is coupled by both adsorption and biology processes, and is an effective treatment technology.

adsorption-biofilm model 吸附-生物膜模型

adsorption equilibrium 吸附平衡
It is the homeostasis that adsorbates absorbed by absorbent surface is equal to the substance desorbed from it at the same time under the certain conditions.

adsorption heat 吸附热
It is the heat released or absorbed in the process of adsorption.

adsorption isotherms 吸附等温线

adsorption process 吸附法处理
It is the water or gas treatment process to absorb pollutants in water or air using poros solid matters as absorbers.
adsorption-regeneration method

adsorption tower technological design 吸附塔工艺设计

adsorption velocity 吸附速度
It means the matter mass adsorbed by per unit mass adsorbent per unit time.

adsorptive load curve 吸附负荷曲线
It is the curve, which demonstrates that the concentration of adsorbate in flowing phase varies with the different height of adsorbent bed under the flowing conditions.

adsorptive specificity 吸附选择性
It is the prior adsorptive ability that adsorbate has for some substances.

Advanced oxidation processes(AOPs) 高级氧化过程
Advanced oxidation processes are the strong oxidation process in which hydroxyl free radical OH·is generated. OH·is an extremely strong oxidant and can change almost all pollutants in wastes to CO2, H2O and inorganic salts without selectivity. Advanced oxidation process cover the coupling of H2O2/O3, TiO2/UV, O3/UV and so on.

advanced treatment 高级处理

advection inversion 平流逆温
It means surface-based inversion associated with horizontal air flow, such as when warm air moves over a cold surface.

adverse impacts 不利影响
It refer to the impacts that have bad or deleterious effects on environment.

aerated lagoon 曝气式氧化塘

aerated oxidation 曝气氧化
It is a kind of oxidation pond to use mechanical or diffusing aerator for aeration with manpower enhancement.

aerated oxidation pond 曝气氧化池
It is a lagoon system in which oxygen is provided in mechanical or diffusible aeration way.

aerating apparatus 曝气装置

aeration basin 曝气池
It is the main structure for biological treatment by activated sludge, and it is the core part in activated sludge process.

Aeration floatation 曝气气浮法
It is the water treatment process to elevate suspended solids in wastewater to liquid surface and separate them that are emulsified or whose specific gravity is closed to one by the floatation and elevation of bladder.

aeration grit settling tank 曝气尘沙池
It is the horizontal grit settling tank which has the aeration equipment.

aeration tank 曝气槽

aeration time 曝气时间
This is the time needed for sewage to pass through an aeration basin.

aerator 曝气器
It is one of key device for aerobic wastewater treatment. It can be fill the oxygen as well as keep suspended solids suspending in the mixture fluid in order to avoid sedimentation of activated sludge at the bottom of aerator.

aerobic 依靠氧气的,与需氧菌有关的
It means living or occurring only in the presence of oxygen.

aerobic aerated oxidation pond 好氧性曝气氧化塘

aerobic composting 好氧堆肥原理

aerobic digestion of sludge 污泥好氧消化
It is a process to stabilize sludge by the action of anaerobic microbe’s metabolism.

aerobic pond 好氧塘

aerobic process 好氧过程
It is one of the unit operations in wastewater treatment, in which heterotrophic bacteria oxidize about one-third of the colloidal and dissolved organic matter to stable end products (CO2+H2O) and convert the remaining two-third into new microbial cells that can be removed from the wastewater by settling. Municipalities and industries have relied almost exclusively on aerobic rather than anaerobic biological process for treating their liquid organic wastes. Aerobic treatment has predominated because of its simplicity, stability, efficient and rapid conversion of organic contaminants to microbial cells, and relatively odor-free operation.

aerobic respiration 有氧呼吸
It is a complex process that occurs in the cells of most living organisms, in which nutrient organic molecules such as glucose combine with oxygen and produce carbon dioxide, water, and energy.

aerobic wastewater treatment 好氧污水处理
It is the biological treatment process. When oxygen is present, organic wastes, as nutritious matters, are oxidized and decomposed into the best hydrogen embracer so as to decrease the concentration of organic in wastewater.

aerometric information retrieval system(AIRS) 气体测量情报检索系统
It is a database management system for the national database for ambient air quality emissions and compliance data.

aerosol pollution 气溶胶态污染物
It means the gaseous scatter system which is composed of solid and liquid particles in gas medium.

aestivation 夏眠
It refers to the state of some animals when they become dormant during the hot summer months.

aflatoxin 黄曲霉毒素
It is a kind of mildew toxin induced by afla-mildew, which often parasite in grain, especially in corns or peanuts in humid and hot zones. Its toxin can result in food pollution or lead to cancer.

aflatoxin carcinogenicity 黄曲霉素致癌性

age distribution 年龄分布
It indicates the comparative percentages of different age groups within a population.

ageing 陈化
It refers to the process that the primary precipitation and mother liquid are placed for a period after the precipitation produced in chemical reaction is completely separated out.

age structure 年龄结构
It indicates percentage of the population at each age lever in a population.

aggregation 聚集
It is the process in which the colloid particles collide with each other and combine, which can be divided into both flocculation and coagulation.

agicultural backwater pollution 农业回流水污染

aging 老化
It means a process that slowly binds the compounds into the soil mineral fraction.

agricultural cropland loss 农田流失
It refers to the decrease of cropland due to various causes.

agricultural ecology 农业生态学
It is the study of agricultural ecosystems and their components as well as function in the context of the landscapes that contain them.

agricultural ecosystem 农业生态系统

agricultural environment 农业环境
It is the integration of essential conditions, such as water, air, sunshine, soil and so on, which agricultural biology like crops, livestock and fish growth and breed demands.

agricultural environment destroy 农业环境破坏
It is the phenomenon that the change of agricultural environment is caused by human or natural causes and then agricultural production is influenced and destroyed directly.

agricultural pollution prevention and control planning 农业污染控制规划

agricultural revolution 农业革命
It refers to gradual shift from small, mobile hunting and gathering bands to settled agricultural communities in which people survived by learning and to cultivate wild plans near where they lived. It began 10000-12000years ago.

agricultural soil 农业土壤

agricultural wastes 农业废物
Wastes and residues resulting from diverse agricultural activities—such as the planning and harvesting of row, field, and tree and vine crops, the production of milk, the production of animals for slaughter, and the operation of feedlots—are collectively called agricultural wastes.

Agricultural wastewater 农业废水
It refers to wastewater from diverse agricultural activities—such as the planting and harvesting of row, filed, and tree and vine crops, the production of milk, the production of animal for slaughter, the operation of feedlots and chemical fertilizer as well pesticide.

agroecosystem 农业生态系统
It refers created by agriculture. It has low genetic, species, and habitat diversity.

agroforestry 农林业

air and water pollution abatement 消除空气与水污染
It means that some ways and techniques are used to control and abate the air and water pollution so as to reduce their harm to environment.

airborne particle 飘尘
It refers to the suspend particle whose radius is less then 10μm.

airborne pollution 气悬污染物
It is the pollutant which existing in air, including dust, tiny suspended particles and so on.

air-borne residuals 悬浮在空气中的残余物
It usually refer to dust, particles and others from combustion processes, which can are commonly reduced by changing combustion processes and using emission and filters.

air-borne sound 空气声
Air-borne sound is the sound propagated using air as a medium inside or outside the room environment.

air-cloth ratio 气布比
It is the ratio of the gas quantity filtered per unit time and the area of filtering cloth used to filer particulates, which is used in the description of the dust removal.

air contaminate 空气污染物
It refers to suspended grains, gases and other compounds which are different from vapor.

air damper 空气阻尼器
Air damper means the device to reduce or control damping using damping.

air-dried pulp(ADP) 自然干燥纸浆
It means the moisture content of the pulp is in equilibrium with the ambient atmosphere. Commercially, pulp is usually described as air-dried when the moisture content of the pulp is 10%.

air floatation 气浮
It is often an aeration process under normal pressure. After inhering impure particles with some minor air bubbles as carriers, their density is less than that of water, so they can be taken out to surface by air bubbles to separate from the water.

air injection system 助燃空气设备

air mass 气团
It is an extensive body of the atmosphere whose physical properties, particularly temperature and humidity, exhibit only small and continuous differences in the horizontal. It may extend over an area of several million square kilometers and over a depth of several kilometers.

air mass modification 气团变性

air monitoring 大气监控
It means the direct method of air sampling and analysis, which is considered the best available technique for identifying air quality changes.

air pollutation 空气污染
Air pollution (atmosphere pollution) is a phenomenon to bring about harm towards human being and other living creatures because the concentration of pollutans in atmosphere reaches a certain level to result in the nature to lose its self-purification capability as well as to destroy ecosystem.

air pollution chemistry 大气污染化学
It is a branch of environmental and pollutionchemistry science as well as also a part of atmospheric chemistry. It mainly studies atmospheric environment, especially the pollutant’s chemical composition, property and its existing-state, the physical and chemical characteristic, and chemical behavior as well as phenomena on the troposphere.

air pollution climatology 空气污染气候学

air pollution concentration prediction 空气污染浓度预报

air pollution control engineering 大气污染控制工程
It is a field of environment engineering, whose task is to adopt engineering technology measures to prevent and alleviate air environment pollution caused by human activities, improve and protect air environment quality and utilize energy sources reasonably.

air pollution forecast 空气污染预报

air pollution meteorology 空气污染气象学

air pollution monitoring 大气污染监测

air pollution potential prediction 空气污染潜势预报

air pollution source 空气污染源

air quality impact assessment process 空气质量影响评价过程
It is a comprehensive assessment of a proposed project’s air quality impacts that involves the following six steps: (1) Establish background air quality levels; (2) Identify applicable air quality criteria and standard; (3) Forecast future air pollutant emissions with and without the project; (4) Forecast future ambient air pollutant concentrations with and without the project; (5) Compare predicted air quality with applicable standards; (6) Modify plans, if necessary, to deal with potential air quality problems.

Air Quality Implementation Plan(AQIP) 空气品质执行标准
air-quality monitoring 空气质量监测
It mainly means the monitoring to determine if some threshold has been exceed, and identify spatial patterns and temporal trends.

air quality standards 大气质量标准
Air quality standards are air quality criteria used to evaluate or assess the air quality in the assessment process.

air-rotary incinerator 气旋焚烧炉

air-solid ratio 气固比
It is the ratio of air mass released by pressured dissolving air water and concentrated solids mass of floatation in the floatation water treatment process.

air sparging 注气
It is the process of injecting air directly into groundwater to remediate groundwater by volatilizing contaminants and enhancing biodegradation.

air stripping 吹脱法

air-to-fuel ratio 空气-燃料比
It is the air mass required theoretically by complete combustion per unit mass fuel.

alar sloping settling tank 翼片斜板沉淀池
It is one of settling tanks, which is the horizontal settling tank with the alar sloping equipment and used to separate solids from liquid phase.

algae 藻类
Algae are some kind of plants, which are excellent nitrogen as well as phosphorus protein source.

algae bloom 藻类过度繁殖

alien species 外援种
It means the species that migrate into an ecosystem or are deliberately or accidentally introduced into an ecosystem by humans.

aliphatic 脂肪烃
It refers to the hydrocarbons and its derivative, whose carbon atoms of molecule are linked to be a chain without a ring.

alkaline chlorination 碱性氯氧化物
Alkaline chlorination is a chlorine oxidation to treat wastewater under alkaline conditions. When chlorine is added to wastewater, under alkaline conditions, reactions occur which lead to oxidation (chlorination) of the contaminant. This oxidation process, which is widely used in the treatment of cyanide wastes, is generally referred to as the “alkaline chlorination” process.

alkalinity 碱度
It means all materials which can neutralize strong acid in water.

alkali pulp making wastewater 碱法制浆废水
Alkali pulp making wastewater is one kind of the wastewater which discharged in the process of alkali pulp making.

alkalophilic microorganisms 嗜碱微生物
It refers to mainly the alkalophilic bacterium which takes alkaline as food. It can be used in neutralization process of wastewater biological treatment.

alkane 烷烃

alkylating agent 烷化剂
It is the material being able to conduct the alkyl to the organic molecule, which is widely used in chemical, dye, plastics and pharmaceutical industries.

alkyl mercury 烷基汞
Alkyl mercury is a representative compound of metal organics in water, which can be dissolved in water, poison to the human body and animals.

allelopathy 化感作用
It means the inhibition of growth in one species of plants by chemicals produced by another species.

allergic reaction 变态反应
Allergic reaction also calls hypersensitive reaction.

allitic weathering 富铝化
It means that silica has been largely removed and the clay fraction is dominated by Al and Fe components.

allowable error 允许误差
Allowable error is the error in the allowable range for analytic results.

alpine tundra 高山冻源
The biome that exists above tree line in mountainous regions.

alternative designs 替代设计

aluminum polychloride 聚合氢氧化铝
Aluminum polychloride is a unique flocculant that has both inorganic and organic polymeric coagulant’s properties, which is wildly used in purification of water and removal of suspended solids in water.

Ambient quality standard 《环境空气质量标准》

Ambient quality 环境质量
It is what we are interested in preserving, which is an index to measure suitable and conformtable degree of the environment to the survival and development of human being.

Ames’ test 埃姆斯试验
Ames’ test is a method used to indentify carcinogenesis of chemical substance quickly.

Ammonia catalytic method desulfurization 氨水催化法脱硫

ammonification 氨化作用
The process in which organic substances or compounds containing nitrogen-ammonia give off ammonia is called ammonification in the decomposition of microbe.

ammonium nitrate(AN) 硝酸铵

ammonium sulfate nitrate(ASN) 硫酸-硝酸铵

amount of precipitation 降水量
It means the depth to which cover a horizontal projection of the earth’ s surface. It is typically expressed in millimeters, equivalent to liters per square meter.

amperometric titration 电流滴定
It is an analysis method of electrochemical titration in which the end point of the titration is indicated by the change of diffusion current in the process of titration the standard solution under the given voltage. It is used widely in environmental analysis and evaluation.

anaerobic 没有空气而能生活的,厌氧性的
It means living or occurring in the absence of oxygen.
anaerobic anoxic oxic (A2/O) 工艺

It is a typical simultaneous removal technique for phosphorus and nitrogen in water, which is widely used in wastewater treatment and is composed of front-end anaerobic basin and back-end aerobic basic in series.

anaerobic biological rotating disc 厌氧生物转盘
It is a device of wastewater biological treatment working and degrading organic pollutants under the anaerobic condition.

anaerobic degradation 厌氧降解

anaerobic contact process 厌氧接触

anaerobic digester sludge 厌氧消化污泥
It is a biological degradation of organics by biochemical actions of partial or specialized anaerobic germs when oxygen is not present.

anaerobic digestion 厌氧消化
It is the treatment method to degrade organics of sludge by facultative anaerobic and obligate anaerobic bacteria without oxygen present so as to stabilize the sludge.

anaerobic fermentation of organic waters 有机垃圾厌氧发酵法

anaerobic fermentation of the algal biomass 海藻类生物质的厌氧发酵

anaerobic filter (AF) 厌氧生物滤池
It is an anaerobic reactor filled with packing materials, which operates and biologically degrades organic pollutants in water under the anaerobic condition.

anaerobic partition reactor 厌氧挡板式反应器
It is a new kind of anaerobic activated sludge process developed by McCarty of America in 1982.

anaerobic pond 厌氧塘
It is a kind of oxidation pond to degrade organic pollutants with the metabolic function of anaerobic bacteria.

anaerobic process 厌氧过程
It is one of unit operations in wastewater treatment, in which two groups of heterotrophic bacteria, in a two-step liquefaction/gasification process, convent over 90 percent of the organic matter present, initially to intermediates and then to methane and carbon dioxide gas as follows:

The process is universally used in heated anaerobic digesters, where primary and biological sludges are retained for approximately 30 days at 35°C to reduce their volume and their putrescibility, and thus simplify their disposal, usually on agricultural land. Two major advantages of anaerobic processes over aerobic ones are that they provide useful energy in the form of methane and that sludge production is only about 10 percent of that from aerobic processes for covering the same amount of organic matter.

anaerobic respiration 无氧呼吸
It refers to form of cellular respiration strong disgusting odor, changing into brown in the air. It is a carcinogenic substance and undegradated in environment.

anion exchange resins 阴离子交换树脂
Anion exchange resins belong to ion exchange resins which pose anion ions that have immobile basic ions, such as amine, to which the mobile anions, such as hydroxyl or chloride, are attached, and that are anionic if they exchange negative ions.

annual normal flow 年正常流量

annual reduced cost 年折算费

anoxic/oxic(A1/O) 工艺
It is a biological nitrogen removal process of pre-denitrification with reflux, in which pre-denitrification operation proceeds in an anaerobic basin and nitrification process runs in an aerobic basin.

antacid 抗酸物质

antagonism 拮抗作用
It is the phenomenon that one substance is restrained by another substance.

Antarctic “ozone hole” 南极“臭氧空洞”

antenna chlorophyll 触须叶绿素
Antenna chlorophyll, also called algal strains with reduced amount of so-called light-harvesting, is one of the chlorophylls that can collect photos.

anthracnose 炭疽病
It is the acute infections disease caused by anthrax bacteria.

antibody 抗体

anticyclone 反气旋
It is the region of the atmosphere where the pressures are high relative to those in the surrounding region at the same level.

antidotal effect 解毒作用

antigen 抗原
It is the substance to excite organisms to produce the exceptional immunity response.

anti-interference ability 抗干扰能力
It is the ability of continual work that specified performance is kept when electromagnetic equipment or system stays in disadvantageous electromagnetic environment.

antimony pollution 锑污染

anti-resonance 反共振
It is the phenomenon that system response is increased by any tiny change of excitation frequency in the simple harmonic force vibration.

apparatus of control of waste gas by combustion 燃烧法处理废气设备

applicability 适应性

aquaculture 水产养殖
Aquaculture, or agriculture in the water is the science and practice of raising fish in artificially controlled ponds or pools.

aqua landscape 水下景观

aquatic 水生的,水生生物
Consisting of, relating to, or being in water.

aquatic eco-remediation 水生生态修复技术

aquatic health indicators 水生物健康指示剂
Those are the substances used to demonstrate how the aquatic health will be.

aquatic surface chemistry 水质界面化学
It is an important branch of water environmental chemistry, and it studies the process occurring between grains in water and interface water.

aquazur V-filter V型滤池
It is a kind of rapid filer to carry out the filtering process at an invariable water level, which is used to separate solid particles or suspended solids from liquid phase in petroleum, chemical and dye waste water treatment.

aquiclude 隔水层
It means the rock or soil through which water passes very slowly.

aquifer 含水层
It is the stratum which contains a plenty of groundwater to form a spring or well.

aquifers 含水量
It refers to groundwater reservoirs from the formations of soil and rock which have become saturated with water.

arbitral analysis 仲裁分析

area sources of water pollution 水污染面源
Those are the pollution sources that pollutants are discharges into water body in the huge areas.

aromatic compound oxidable process 芳香化合物氧化过程

arsenbical wastewater 含砷废水

arsenic poisoning 砷中毒

arsenic pollution 砷污染
It refers to pollution resulted from arsenic and its compounds discharged into environment.

artesian water 自流水
It means the groundwater confined in an aquifer and under pressure great enough to cause the water to rise above the top of the aquifer when it is tapped by a well.

articles for exemption from liability 免责条款

artificial radioisotope 人工放射性同位素

artificial selection 人工选择,人为淘汰
It refers to human intervention in animal or plant reproduction to ensure that certain desirable traits are represented in successive generations.

asbestos-containing materials (ACM) 含石棉材料

asbestosis 石棉肺
It is a sickness resulted from asbestos pollution.

asbestos pollution 石棉污染
When the quantity and residence time of asbestos fibers in the environment reach the pollution level endangering the health of human body, this pollution s called asbestos pollution.

ash 焚烧灰渣
It is the discharged matter collected from grate of refuse incinerator, flue precipitator, heat boiler, mainly including noncombustible organic not to burn out.

ashes and residues 灰与(燃烧)残余物
Materials remaining from the burning of wood, coal, coke, and other combustible, and industrial and municipal facilities for purposes of heating, cooking, and disposing of combustible wastes are categorized as ashes and residues that are normally composed of fine, powdery materials, cinders, clinkers, and small amounts of burned and partially burned materials.

ashes classification (焚烧)灰渣种类

ash removal system by waterpower 水力除尘系统
It is one of the devices to remove dusts or solid particles from gas streams.

a socio-economic cooperative system 社会经济合作系统
It is a new cooperative system that combines farming, milling, processing and waste reuse.

a solid waste collection point 固体废物收集点
A solid waste collection point is where the waste will be picked up. It is important because it affects many other collection variables, including choice of storage containers, crew size, and the selection of collection trucks.

asphaltic residue 沥青残留物
Asphaltic residue, also called asphaltic remainder, is some substance residing in asphalt, which is toxic and harmful to environment.

asphalt solidification 沥青固化

assessment of atmospheric environmental influence 大气环境影响评价

assimilative capacity 涵容能力

atmosphere pollution 大气污染

atmosphere pollution control 大气污染防治
It means a series of actions and ways to prevent atmosphere pollution as well as to reduce the contamination level.

atmospheric boundary layer 大气边界层
It generally means the lowest layer in the atmosphere, usually taken to be up to 1500m, in which meteorological conditions are affected significantly by the earth’s surface.

atmosphere corrosion 大气腐蚀作用
It indicates that the destructive phenomena are induced when the surfaces of subjects or components exposed to the air are contact with atmospheric environment pollutants and chemical reactions take place.

atmospheric deposition 大气沉降
It involves the process in which gaseous, liquid or solid pollutants in atmosphere transfer to the earth’s surface under the effect of gravitation or rainfall.

atmospheric diffusion 大气扩散

atmospheric diffusion model 大气扩散模式
A mathematic model which can simulate the process of transmitting, diffusing and transferring the pollutant in the air quantificationally by mathematic means, as well as can calculate the concentration distribution and transformation discipline of pollutant, is called atmospheric diffusion model.

atmospheric diffusion parameter 大气扩散参数

atmospheric environmental capacity 大气环境容量
It means the ability of atmospheric environmental to perform, and continue to perform, its various natural functions.

atmospheric environmental impact assessment 大气环境影响评价

atmospheric environmental quality evaluation 大气环境质量评价
The illustrating, evaluating and forecasting of atmospheric environmental quality in some areas according to the same criterion and method are called atmospheric environmental quality evaluation.

atmospheric environmental quality standard 大气环境质量标准

atmospheric environmental remove sensing 大气环境遥感
It refers to a technology of environment remove sensing by exploding the satellite image to analyze the soot of factory.

atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion 大气(空气)流化床燃烧
It is one of the new technologies of air pollution control which is particularly suitable in sulfur-reduction.

atmospheric liquid-phrase reaction 大气液相反应
It is known as liquid gas phrase reaction, which represents the heterogeneous reaction between gases and liquids in the air.

atmospheric ozone depletion 大气臭氧衰减
It refers to the depletion of ozone layer thickness and concentration in atmosphere. It is usually considered that atmospheric ozone deletion is induced by CFCs, is likely to continue for at least a half-century, and may entail many ecologically disruptive and dangerous consequences.

atmospheric physics 大气物理学
Study of the physical properties and processes of the atmosphere.

atmospheric pollution effect 大气污染效应
It means the phenomena to destroy the relative equilibrium of natural ecology because atmospheric pollutants affect natural environment to change one or more environmental factors, to impact the ecosystem and even cause the variation of its structure and function.

atmospheric quality assessment 大气质量评价

atmospheric quality index 大气质量指数

atmospheric resident time 大气停留时间
It is the average time during which some kind of atmosphere component exists in the atmospheric storehouse.

atmospheric selective absorption 大气选择吸收

atmospheric stability 大气稳定度
It is a measure of the degree to which the atmosphere resists turbulence and vertical motion.

atmospheric turbidity 大气浑浊度
It is a level that the solar radiation is reduced by mutual actions among dispersion and absorption of air molecules and suspending particles, absorption of gas and vapor in the atmosphere,

atomic force microscope 原子力显微镜

attapuligite granule adsorbent 凹凸棒土吸收剂

autitory sensation area 听觉区域

autecology 个体生态学
Autecology, also called ecology of individuals, is the branch discipline of ecology taking the organism individual as the research object.

automatic analysis 自动分析

automatic changing chlorine source device 氯源自动切换装置

automatic control system for incineration system 自动控制系统

autotroph 自养生物,靠无机物质生存的生物
It is an organism that produces its own food from inorganic compounds and a source of energy. There are photoautographs and chemical autotrophs.

autotrophs 自养性生物

auxiliary equipment for composting 堆肥辅助机械

auxin 茁长素,植物激素
It is a plant hormone that stimulates growth.

avalanche detector 雪崩探测器
It is a new kind of radioactive detector with semiconductor structure, which is specially used to detect avalanche.

average daily discharge 平均日流量
Background air quality levels mean the data, for example, in the United States, which are available from local, regional, and state air quality management agencies, various state implementation plans proposed in response to federal air quality laws, and EPA’s computerized data retrieval systems.

average sound absorption coefficient 平均吸声常数

average sound isolation factor 平均隔声量
It refers to the arithmetic mean value of sound isolation factors of 16 1/3 octave center frequency between 100 to 3150Hz.

average water level 平均水位

a vertical loop reactor (VLR) 垂直循环式反应器
It is an aerobic suspended growth activated sludge biological treatment process similar to an oxidation ditch.

azocompound 偶氮化合物

[ 本帖最后由 liping1019 于 2008-12-4 19:09 编辑 ]

liping1019 发表于 2008-7-31 19:29:26

b

background air pollution monitoring 大气质量本底监测

background air quality levels 大气质量背景值

background atmosphere 本底空气
It is relative to air pollution in general, amount of pollutant present in the ambient air in the absence of local sources.

background extinction 自然灭绝
It refers to normal extinction of various species as a result of changes in local environmental conditions.

background noise 背景噪声
It indicates all disturbances that are independent of signal existence in the measuring system.

background value of soil 土壤背景值

backwashing 反冲洗

backwashing intensity of filter 滤池冲洗强度
It is the backwashing quantity supplied per unit filter tank area per unit time when filter tank is backwashed.

backwater 回水
It is the stagnant water connected to a river or stream.

backyard pickup 庭院垃圾收集

bacteria 细菌
It refers to simplest and smallest forms of plant life, microscopic organisms that exist in large numbers in air, water and solid, and also in living and dead creatures and plants, and are often a cause of disease.

bacterial desulfurization 细菌脱硫
It means a desulfurization process by bacterial action which uses sulfur or sulfur compounils as its food.

backtericidal lamp 灭菌灯
It is the low-pressure mercury lamp whose principal wavelength is at 254nm. It kills baiteralsby UV.

bacteriological pollution index 细菌学污染指标
Bacteriological pollution index illustrates the total numbers of bacteria, coliform and virus spots.

bacteriophage 噬菌体

bag house precipitator 布袋除尘器
It is one of devices to remove dusts or solid particles from gas streams using bag hose to capture solids from gas through the precipitator.

bag house 布袋除尘器

bag house with pulse jet cleaning 脉冲喷吹清灰袋式除尘器

bag house with reverseflow cleaning逆流式清灰袋式除尘器

bag house with shake cleaning 机械振动清灰袋式除尘器

ballistic vibration 冲击振动
It is the vibration produced after vibration system is impacted by outside force.

bar rack 格栅池
A bar rack is a typical device encountered by the wastewater entering the plant, whose primary purpose is to remove trash and large objects that would damage or foul pumps, valves, and other mechanical equipment.

bar screen 格栅
It is a device used to remove larger particles in wastewater pretreatment.

baseline data 原始数据

baseline review 基线调查
It is a system method to collect and identify the necessary information of pollution prevention on the base of knowing products and manufacture process well.

base saturation percentage 盐基饱和

basic environmental science 基础环境学
It is a basic science formed in the development of environment science, which includes environmental mathematics, environmental physics, environmental chemistry, environmental ecology, environmental geography and environmental geology.

basic equation of water quality model 水质模型基本方程
It is the basic expression of water quality’s change rule in water.

basic frequency 主频
It is the uppermost frequency of a complex signal including many different frequencies.

basic oxygen furnace(BOF) 氧气顶吹转炉
It is the place within a foundry where molten iron from the blast furnace is change into liquid steel.

basin 盆地
It is a broad and gravel particles rolling, sliding or bouncing along the bed of a stream.

below-cloud process云下过程

belt press filter 带式压滤机
Dewatering by belt press filter is the treatment method to dewater sludge by a belt press filter.

bending wave 弯曲波

beneficial impacts 有利影响

benefit-to-cost ratio(B/C) 效益-成本比

benthal deposit 水底沉积
It is the accumulation on the bed of watercourse of deposits containing organic matter arising from natural erosion or discharges of wastewaters.

benthal sea 深海

benthic 海底的,水底的,底栖的
It describes organisms that live on the bottom of marine and freshwater ecosystem.

benthic deposits 淤泥

benthic ecosystem 底栖生态系统
It refers to a type of marine or freshwater ecosystem consisting of organisms that live on the bottom.

benthic mud 淤泥

benthos 底栖生物
It means the organisms which completely or frequently live at the bottom of water, like fish and plankton.

benz[α] pyrene carcinogen, B[α]P 苯并[α]芘致癌物

benzene 苯

benzo(α)anthracene, B(α)A苯并(α)蒽

benzo(α)pyrene, B(α)P 苯并(α)芘

beryllium poisoning 铂中毒

best available technology(BAT) 最佳可用技术
It is a “spare no expense” doctrine which prescribes the acquisition of the best technology available, without regard for traditional cost-benefit analyses. This can be the result of a future-oriented business strategy, or reflect concern for other factors, such as environmental impact.

best available technology not entailing excessive cost(BATNEEC) 成本适当的最佳可用技术

best practicable technology(BPT) 最佳实用技术
It is a technology that produces the maximum environmental benefit through the application of relevant technologies.

BET equation BET方程
BET equation is an equation destribing the isothermal desorption process.

bhopal accident 博帕尔事件

bidding games approach 投标博弈法

bidirectional filter 双向滤池
It is one of the rapid filters, in which water enters in two directions, top and bottom in water gravity filtration processes.

bidirectional vane 双向风标

biggest permit 土壤有害物质最大允许残留量

bilateral treaty for international environment protection 《国际环境保护双边协定》

bioaccumulation 生物累积
It refers to the buildup of a material in the body of an organism.

bioassay 生物检测,生物鉴定,活体鉴定
It refers to determination of the strength or biological activity of a substance, such as a drug or hormone, by comparing its effects with those of a standard preparation on a test organism.

bioaugmentation 生物自检
Enhanced bioremediation is a process in which indigenous or inculated micro-organisms(e. g. , fungi, bacteria, and other microbes) degrade(metabolize) organic contaminants found in soil and/or ground water, converting them to innocuous end products.

biobarrier 生物屏蔽
It is an engineered system in which a BAZ is created in the path of the plume through injection of electron donor, electron acceptor, and/or nutrients. Hydraulic or physical controls on groundwater movement may be required to make certain that the plume passes through the BAZ.

biocatalysis and biosynthesis systems 生物催化与生物合成系统
Biocatalysis and biosynthesis system are those that have the potential to allow synthesis under environmentally friendly conditions while achieving high specificity and yield. Such reaction systems may also use renewable feed stocks and transform materials with low or negative economic value into fuels or chemicals with higher value.

biochemical oxygen demand(BOD) 生物需氧量
It is a parameter used as a measured amount of oxygen required by acclimated microorganisms to biologically degrade the organic matter in the wastewater, and as a basis for estimating the oxygen needed for biological processes and as an indicator of processes and as an indicator of process performance, which is the most important parameter in water pollution control.

biocide 杀生物剂,杀菌剂
It is a kind of chemical that kills many different types of living things.

bioconcentration 生化浓缩,生物富集因子

biodegradable 可生物降解
It is a degradable process in which a material decomposes in the environment as a result of biological action.

biodegradation 生物分解

biodiesel 生物柴油
It is a biological fuel or a replacing diesel fuel derived from microalgae(algal oils).

bioelement 生命元素
It is the part composed of organism and the required nutrition element maintaining normal function of organism.

bioenrichment 生物富集作用

biofertilizer 生物化肥

biofilter 生物过滤器

biofiltration 生物过滤
It is a pollution control technology which is suitable for wastewater treatment, treatment of soil and groundwater contaminated, and control of air contaminants, among environmental professionals, biological removal of VOC emissions and odors as well air toxics from off-gas streams in a solid phase reactor, particularly if applied to off-gas streams that contain only low concentrations (typically less than 1000ppm as methane) of air pollutants that are easily biodegraded.

biofuel 生物燃料
It refers to gas or liquid fuel made from plant material.

biogas 生物气,沼气
It refers to methane gas, which is produced by microbial ferment in general, and is a clean energy source.

biogeochemical cycle 生物地球化学循环

biogeochemical province 生物地球化学区

biological activated carbon process 生物活性炭法
It is the method cooperates to treat sewage with activated carbon and microorganism coexisting in a system.

biological aerobic treatment of wastewater 废水好氧生物处理
It is a harmless treatment to degrade and stabilize organics with main aerobic microorganisms with the free oxygen present.

biological anaerobic treatment of wastewater 废水厌氧生物处理
It is a harmless treatment to degrade and stabilize organics with main anaerobic microorganisms without the free oxygen present.

biological assessment of water pollution toxicity 水污染毒性生物评价

biological clock 生物钟

biological criteria 生物准则(判据)
Biological criteria are those developed to quantifiably, scientifically evaluate and asses aquatic and other biological systems. For instance, the amount of the aquatic resource which meets and exceeds biological criteria can be determined by them.

biological diversity 生物多样性
It means the variety of life on the Earth, but technically this concept consists of three components: (1)genetic diversity-the total number of genetic characteristics; (2)species diversity; and(3)habitat or ecosystem diversity-the number of kinds of habitats or ecosystems in a given unit area. Species diversity in turn includes three concepts: species richness, evenness, and dominance.

biological element 生命元素

biological evaluation of atmospheric pollution 大气污染生物学评价
It is to use animals and plants which are sensitive to atmospheric pollution to evaluate atmosphere pollution condition.

biological evolution 生物进化
It refers to the change in inherited characteristics of a population from generation to generation, which can result in new species.

biological filter 生物滤池

biological fluidized bed 生物流化床
It is a wastewater treatment device that combines biological membrane technology with fluidized bed technique.

biological genome 生物细胞质基因

biological halflife 生物半衰期
It is the required time at which the quantity of environment pollutant in organism or organ is reduced to half of former one because of metabolic function of organism.

biological indicators 生物指示(显示)剂
Biological indicators are those used to show biological occurrence or an index of biotic integrity.

biologically active zone (BAZ)生物活性区

biological monitoring for atmospheric pollution 大气污染生物监测
It is to utilize the relative relationship of reaction between organism and atmosphere pollutant to measure the component and content of harmful gas.

biological pollution 生物性污染

biological pollution of atmosphere 大气生物污染

biological pollution of soil 土壤生物污染

biological pulp 生物制浆

biological purification of water boy 水体生物净化

biological wastewater treatment 废水生物处理
It is a water treatment method that a portion of organics can be diverted to the cells of microbe while others can be changed into relatively stable chemicals (in organics or simple organics) by microbe’s metabolic actions.

biological weathering 生物风化
It is weathering done by living things.

biological zero 生物学零度

biologic effect 生物效应

biology 生物学
It is the science of life and of living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, origin, evolution, and distribution. It includes botany and zoology and all their subdivisions.

biomagnifications 生物放大(作用)
It is the bioaccumulation of a substance up the food chain by transfer of residues of the substance in smaller organisms that are food for larger organisms in the chain.

biomarker 生物标志物
It refers to the biochemistry and physiology change of biological organisms caused by chemical pollutants, which is used in environmental analysis and evaluation.

biomass 生物量
It is the total mass of living matter within a given unit of environmental area.

biomass fuels 生物质燃料
Those are renewable fuels that could replace a fraction of fossil fuels and are organic flammable matters which are produced by photosynthesis.

biome (生态)生物群系
It refers to a broad, regional type of ecosystem characterized by distinctive climate and soil conditions and a distinctive biological community adapted to those conditions.

biometeorology 生物气象学
It is the study of the influences exerted on living organisms by the meteorological elements.

biomineralization 生物矿化
It means the enhancement of the natural biogeochemical processes of forming mineral deposits.

biopiles 生物堆法
It means the process in which excavated soils are mixed with soil amendments and placed in abovegroung enclosures. It is an aerated static pile composting process in which compost is formed into piles and aerated with blowers or vacuum pumps.

biocrectors 生物反应器
A bioreactor is a vessel in which is carried out a chemical process which involves organisms. This process can either be aerobic or anaerobic.

bioremediation 生物修复
It refers to a method of treating groundwater pollution problems that utilizes microorganisms in the ground to consume or break down pollutants.

bioremediation technology 生物修复技术

biosafety 生物安全
It is the prevention and control measures adopted to potential negative systems caused by nature or human beings, especially the immigration of foreign species brought by the exploitation and application of modern biological technology.

bioscrubber 生化洗涤器
It is the scrubber to remove or wash away some unwanted materials, based on biological technology or biosorption.

bioslurping 生物助长
It is a ground water remedial approach combining bioventing and vacuum-enhanced free-product recovery.

biosorption 生物吸附

biosphere 生物圈
It refers to the part of the earth and its atmosphere in which living organisms exist or that is capable of supporting life.

biosphere 自然保护区

biostimulation 生物刺激作用

biota 生物区,生物群
It is total of the animals, plants, and microbes that live in a particular location or region.

biotic environment 生物环境
The combination of external physical conditions that affect and influence the growth, development, and survival of organisms.

biotic factors 生物因素
It refers to any living member of environment, such as animals, plants, bacteria, etc.

biotic index 生物指数

biotreatment of gaseous pollutant 气体生物净化

biotrickling filter 生物滴滤器
It is one of the trickling filters. It removes pollutants mainly by microbial metabolic process.

[ 本帖最后由 liping1019 于 2008-12-4 19:10 编辑 ]

yimeng 发表于 2008-8-5 10:06:34

呵呵 版主真是个有心人吧,不仅自由学习,还带动了大家。下载学习了:P :P :

liping1019 发表于 2008-8-5 18:52:54

原帖由 yimeng 于 2008-8-5 10:06 发表 http://www.chinacitywater.org/bbs/images/common/back.gif
呵呵 版主真是个有心人吧,不仅自由学习,还带动了大家。下载学习了:P :P :
呵呵,一起学习!

miss helen 发表于 2008-8-15 09:30:31

佩服楼主ING ~~
一直想提高自己的英语水平可是总是苦于无动力~~ 
谢谢楼住的分享~~ :handshake

koala 发表于 2008-8-19 09:52:38

都是你自己敲的吗?佩服哦

liping1019 发表于 2008-8-19 19:03:34

呵呵,过些日子分享最近的学习成果!

rain2007 发表于 2008-8-22 19:50:10

回复 3# 的帖子

一直很关注你的帖子
个个都是好贴:lol

liping1019 发表于 2008-8-23 19:02:03

原帖由 rain2007 于 2008-8-22 19:50 发表 http://www.chinacitywater.com/bbs/images/common/back.gif
一直很关注你的帖子
个个都是好贴:lol
谢谢冷霜版主!:loveliness:

yuseason 发表于 2008-8-31 12:30:37

楼主,等着你更新下面的哦···:)

liping1019 发表于 2008-9-20 10:03:33

原帖由 yuseason 于 2008-8-31 12:30 发表 http://www.chinacitywater.org/bbs/images/common/back.gif
楼主,等着你更新下面的哦···:)
谢谢支持,B的另一部分和C、D都已经学习了一遍,可是还找不到好的机会拿来分享,我尽快!

whitebird 发表于 2008-9-24 11:27:58

回复 1# 的帖子

我也想这么做来着,可是路途太漫长了
打字很辛苦啊

abandant 发表于 2008-9-26 10:50:56

OhNO~~舍了命的整理啊~

liping1019 发表于 2008-12-4 19:06:20

bioventing 生物通风
When the contaminants are trapped in the unsaturated zone above the water table, the easiest way to supply oxygen is by pulling air through the unsaturated soil, this technique is called bioventing.

birth defects 先天不足
Birth defects, in environmental science, usually refer to the defects or drawback of human and animal as well as plant birth induced by environmental pollution.

bisual acuity 视觉敏锐度
It refers to the ability of eyes to distinguish the minimal distance between two points of objects.

black liquid 黑液
It is the black and brown wastewater discharged by scrubbing pulp in the process of alkali pulp making.

black pollution 黑色污染
It refers to the pollution produced by separated remnants such as “acid dregs” and other black pollutants when petrochemical lube and toluene by using semi-manufactured oil, raw oil or tar at acid-alkaline conditions.

black smoke or british smokeshade method(BS) 英国烟雾测定法
It is a method using BS indicator to analyze light reflected from a stain formed by particulate matter collected on paper.

blank value 空白试验值
To analysis a blank sample with no substance to be measured, the process in which we adopt the same instrument, reagent and operation just as formal experiment is called blank value.

blast aerator 鼓风曝气装置
It is one of aerators, which is composed of blower, air diffusing installation, air purification installation and air transport pipelines.

blast-enhanced fracturing 爆破强化破裂法
It is a fluid fracturing process using explosives to fracture rock for creating more pathways for water flow.

blow-off method 吹脱法处理
It is the water treatment method that dissolved volatile matter in water is transferred to gas phase from liquid phase by the oxidation reaction produced when air passes sewage, and then volatile matter is blowed of and separated further.

BOD5 前五天生物需氧量
BOD5, a five-day test for BOD, is a standard test of BOD, in which wastewater sample is placed in the black environment at 20℃ for five days, and oxygen consumed is called BOD5.

BOD/COD 生物需氧量与化学需氧量之比
BOD/COD is the ratio of biological oxygen demand to chemical oxygen demand, which can be used to indirectly express the biological degradation degree of pollutants.

BOD-DO water quality model of river 河流BOD-DO水质模型
It is the mathematic description concerning about BOD-DO coupling change rule of river, and it is used in analysis or characterization of pollution in river.

boilers and industrial furnaces (BIFs) 锅炉及工业锅炉

boreal forest 北方森林
It is a broad band of mixed coniferous and deciduous trees that streches across northern North America; its northernmost edge is integrated with the arctic tundra.

break through curve 穿透曲线
It is the curve, which shows that the concentration of adsorbate which is not adsorbed in the effluent of fixed adsorbent bed varies with time.

break through point 穿透点

break through time 保护作用时间
It means the time, at which airflow containing pollutants begins to pass through the adsorptive bed till it gets
to the break through point.

breast cancer 乳腺癌

briquette coal 球型煤

bubbles policy 泡泡政策
It is a pollution permits system to control effectively total pollutant discharge amount, which was laid down by US in 1979.

buffering capability in natural water bodies 天然水体缓冲能力

buffering effect of soil 土壤的缓冲性

building materials from solid wastes 固体废物建筑材料

bulking sludge 松化污泥

buoyancy rise 热力抬升

by-pass canal 分水渠

by-pass line 分水线

by-water 废河道

[ 本帖最后由 liping1019 于 2008-12-4 19:08 编辑 ]

liping1019 发表于 2008-12-4 19:11:05

c

calcification 富钙化
It is a process in which the mineral calcium builds up in tissue, causing it to harden.

calcium ammonium nitrate(CAN) 硝酸钙铵

calibration of water quality model 水质模型系数校正

calm 静风
It is absence of air motion or wind with a speed of less than 1 knot.

canal 运河,渠道
The word has two meanings: (1) Water way made by people for ships to travel along (2) Waterway made by people to take water to irrigate land.

capillary suction time(CST) 毛细吸取时间
Capillary suction time is an indirect method to measure the filtration performance of sludge.

capillary water 毛细管水
It is the water flowing through small holes by capillary phenomenon.

captive balloon 系留气球
It means a balloon secured or towed by a cable.

capture hood 集气罩
It is the aspirating capture device of pollutants in gas.

carbamate 氨基甲酸盐(或酯)
It is a class of soft pesticides that work by interfering with normal nerve impulses.

carbon absorption 碳吸附
It refers to the use of carbon particles to treat chemicals by having the chemical attach to the carbon particles.

carbonate hardness 碳酸盐硬度
It is also called temporary hardness causing scale formation in boilers and industrial equipment, which is induced by precipitation of bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium as insoluble carbonates when carbon dioxide is driven off by boiling.

carbon bisulfide 二硫化碳

carbon cycle 碳循环

carbon dioxide fixation 二氧化碳固定
It means the process to use solar energy to fix atmospheric CO2 into renewable biomass so as to supply primary energy consumption, thus reducing the amount of fossil fuels.

carbon monoxide poisoning 一氧化碳中毒
It refers to the poisoning case resulted from inhaling carbon monoxide.

carbon oxides 碳氧化物
Carbon oxides generally cover carbon monoxide which is usually produced in the forest fires and decaying organic matter, the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and other organic matter in cas and furnaces, cigarette smoke, and carbon dioxide which is often produced in natural aerobic respiration of living organisms and burning of fossil fuels. Carbon dioxide is a main gas inducing greenhouse effect.

carbon tetrachloride (CTC) 四氯化碳

carcinogen 致癌物,致癌因素
It refers to the substances or factors inducing malignancy in human body.

carcinogenesis 致癌作用
It refers to the test that carcinogen in environment induces malignancy.

carcinogenesis of alkylating agents 烷化剂的致癌作用

carcinogenicity 致癌性
It is some physical, chemical and biological characteristics to cause animals or human being to suffer from malignancy.

carcinoma 癌瘤
It is one of tumors, which belongs to malignancy as well as is one of the cancers.

carnivores 食肉动物

carrier of environmental information 环境信息载体
It is the medium producing and transferring the environmental information.

carrying capacity 承载能力
It refers to the maximum number of individuals of a given species that a site can support during the most unfavorable time of year, without causing deterioration of the site.

carrying capacity of water environment 水环境容量

catabolism 分解代谢
It refers to the process in which the cell degrades the macro-molecule into the small molecule, and produce the energy. It occurs freguently in biological degradation of organic pollitants.

catalyst 催化剂
It is a substance that alters the rate of a reaction but is not itself changed.

catalyst for catalytic combustion 催化燃烧催化剂
It is a substance added in order to change the rate of combustion reaction, and its amount keeps unchanged before and after combustion.

catalyst of mobile exhaust control 汽车尾气净化催化剂
It is the catalyst used for the catalytic purification of mobile exhaust, and mainly is some solid adsorbers with catalytic function to remove NOx, SOx and on.

catalyst selection 催化剂选择

catalytic activity 催化剂活性
It is the parameter used to evaluate the catalytic efficiency and potential of catalyst.

catalytic combustion 催化燃烧
It is an effective way to treat organic exhaust gas with high concentration, by decreasing organic exhaust gas ignition point and burning it at its relatively low temperature(200~400℃) and changing it into CO2, H2O or other harmless small molecular substances with catalyst. It is also an effective way to decompose waste gas completely under lower temperature with catalyst.

catalytic combustion of organic waste gas 有机废气催化燃烧
It means that hydrocarbon in organic gas is oxidized quickly to carbon dioxide and water at the temperatures of 200~400℃ with the catalyst. It is the complete oxidation of organic substances with catalyst.

catalytic oxidation 催化氧化

catalytic oxidation of odor 臭气催化氧化
It is the odor-removal method to burn odor at low temperature (200~400℃) with platinum or other metal catalysts. Catalytic oxidation is a highly effective waste treatment technology by which adding a catalyst that promotes oxygen transfer and thus enhances oxidation has the effect of lowering the necessary reactor temperature and/or improving the level of destruction of oxidizable compounds. For waste constituents that are more difficult to oxidize, catalyst addition may be necessary to effectively destroy the constituent(s) of concern. Catalysts typically used for this purpose include copper bromide and copper nitrate.

catalytic selectivity 催化剂选择性
It refers to the capability of catalyst to accelerate reaction rate for a certain special chemical reaction.

category of solid wastes 固体废弃物的分类

cation exchange 阳离子交换
It is the interchange of a cation in solution and another cation on the surface of any surface-active material such as clay colloid or organic colloid.

cation exchange resins 阳离子交换树脂
Cation exchange resins belong to ion exchange resins which have cation ions that contain mobile positive ions, such as hydrogen or sodium, which are attached to immobile functional acid groups, such as sulfonic and carboxylic groups, and that are cationic if they exchange positive ions.

cause-effect relationship 因果关系
It is the relationship of the two variables that one variable(x) can cause another(y) change in the investigation research of environment science.

cement solidification 水泥固化

centrifugal scrubber 离心式除尘器
It is one of the devices to remove dusts or solid particles from gas streams with centrifugal force.

centrifugation 离心处理

centrifuge 离心分离机
It is a device used in the heterogeneous separation. For instance, it is utilized in the liquid and solid separation in wastewater treatment.

ceramic filer dust separators 陶瓷过滤除尘器
It is a device to separate and capture soot, dust, charcoal particles and fogdrop from exhaust gas.

cervix cancer 子宫颈癌

cesspool 污水池

chalky slag 白土渣

changes in productivity approach 生产率变动法

channel improvement 河道整治

characterization of ecological effects 水资源特性
It refers to ecological risk assessment that evaluates ability of a stressor to case adverse effects under given circumstances.

chelating agent 螯合剂

chemical adsorber 化学吸附器
It is an adsorber in which adsorption processes are accompanied with chemical reaction.

chemical adsorption 化学吸附
It means the adsorption phenomena caused by the interaction of force like chemical bond between the absorbent (solid or liquid) surface and molecules of adsorbed (gas or solute) substances.

chemical carcinogen 化学致癌物
It refers to chemicals that can induce all kinds of cancers. About 6000 types of chemical carcinogen have been known up to now.

chemical carcinogenesis 化学致癌作用

chemical conditioning 化学调节

chemical degradation 化学降解
Chemical degradation illustrates the process in which a complicated molecule gradually is decomposed into simple (ordinary) one by a series of reactions of biochemistry or biophysics.

chemical desulfurization 化学法脱硫
It is the method to get rid of sulfur in coal by chemical process.

chemical extraction 化学萃取
It means the process in which waste contaminated soil and extractant are mixed in an extractor, thereby dissolving the contaminants. The extracted solution is then placed in a separator, where the contaminants and extractant are separated for treatment and further use.

chemical fertilizer pollution of soil 土壤化肥污染

chemical fixation 化学(物质)固定

chemically pure water 化学纯水
Chemically pure water, which is not found in nature, not in wild streams or lakes, not in clouds or rain, not in the polar ice caps, is a collection of H2O molecules-nothing else. Very pure water can be prepared in the laboratory but only with considerable difficulty, as well as water accepts and holds foreign matter.

chemical models of atmospheric pollution 大气污染化学模式
It is called chemical reaction mechanism of atmospheric pollution, which describes the chemical reactions of pollutants in the air and mainly involves some photochemical reactions between organic substances such as nitrogen-dioxide or sulfur dioxide in air.

chemical mutagen 化学致突变物

chemical oxidation 化学氧化
It is a waste treatment technique which includes wet air and supercritical water oxidation, electrolytic, radiative and biological oxidation, and which has been found very effective in the treatment of industrial and domestic wastewater.

chemical oxidation of odor 臭气化学氧化
It is the odor-removal method to use ozone, potassium permanganate, hypochlorite, chlorine, chlorine dioxide as oxidants to transform chemically odor substances.

chemical oxygen demand (COD) 化学需氧量
COD is a parameter used as a measured amount of oxygen needed to chemically oxidize the organics present in wastewater or illustrates the consuming quantity of oxidant to oxidize reductive substances in every liter water sample.

chemical pollution 化学性污染

chemical pollution index 化学污染指数
It refers to the content and concentration of certain chemical substances existing in water.

chemical precipitation 化学沉淀
It is a physicochemical process whereby a substance in solution is transformed into a solid phase and driven out of solution. Chemical precipitation is a treatment technology applicable to wastewaters containing a wide range of dissolved and other metals, as well as other inorganic substances such as fluorides.

chemical processes 化学过程
Chemical processes are very important means for industrial wastewater treatment, which cover oxidation, reduction, precipitation, neutralization, and which alone or with other processes are frequently necessary for industrial wastes that are not amenable to treatment by biological means.

chemical process industry (CPI) 化学加工工业

chemical product pollution 化学品污染

chemical reaction mechanism 化学反应机制
It is also known as reaction course, and it indicates the detail process where some substances are transformed into others.

chemical reagent for scale removal 化学清垢剂

chemical reduction 化学还原

chemical reprocessing liquid waste 化学后处理废液
It is also called wet reprocessing liquid waste, refers to radioactive liquid wastes produced in the recovery of resident fissionable materials at chemical nuclear fuel reprocessing plant.

chemical self-purification 化学自净
It is the natural purification of environmental pollutants caused by the chemical purification that exists in nature.

chemical setting treatment 化学沉淀处理
It is a way to remove pollutants in water, in which by adding some chemicals to wastewater, the reaction between these chemicals and dissolved pollutants in the water takes place, the deposits are produced, and then the separation of solid and liquid is conducted.

chemical stabilization 化学稳定
It is the process to utilize chemical agents to transform toxic matters to ones with low dissolvability, transference and toxicity by chemical reaction.

chemical state 化学状态
It is the total of the special state of the material due to containing different energy, various combining style of atoms, and different structures of chemical species such as molecules and groups under a given condition.

chemical toxic substances monitoring 化学毒物监测
It indicates the examination of 192 items of toxic chemicals issued by IRPTC(short for international registration for potential toxic substsnces).

chemical treatment of sludge 污泥化学处理

chemical weathering 化学风化
It is the process by which rocks are decomposed, dissolved or loosened by chemical processes to form residual materials.

chemilluminescence analysis 化学发光分析

chemithermomechanical pulping (CT-MP) 热化学机械制浆
It is a pulping method by breaking down wood chips into fibers through a combination of heat, mechanical and chemical treatments.

chemoautotroph 化能自养菌,化能自养物
It refers to autotrophic bacteria that can derive energy from chemical reactions of simple inorganic compounds.

chemosynthesis 化学合成
It is the synthesis of carbohydrate from carbon dioxide and water using oxidation of simple inorganic compounds. This form of synthesis is limited to certain bacteria and fungi.

chemotaxis 趋化性
It refers to the characteristic movement or orientation of an organism or cell along a chemical concentration gradient either toward or away from the chemical stimulus.

chemotropism 趋化性

chitosan chelateflocculant 壳聚糖鳌合聚凝集
As a sorbent and flocculant, chitosan chelateflocculant is a chemical compound used as a sorbent and flocculant, which not only effectively capture heavy metal ions and organics in solutions but also prevent the growth of bacteria to purify the wastewater.

chloramines 氯胺

chlorella 小球藻

chlorination 氯化(消毒)
It is the most common method of disinfecting public water supplies. Sufficient quantites of chlorine from chlorine gas or hypochlorites are added to treated water to kill pathogenic bacteria. Chlorine is a reliable, relatively inexpensive, and easy disinfection method to use.

chlorinator 加氯机
It is the important part of chlorination facility, whose function is to send chlorine from a chlorine bottle to the chlorination point safely, correctly and efficiently.

chlorine breakpoint 折点加氯
It is an efficient method for drinking water, which can be used to remove inorganic or organic pollutants in water by chemical oxidation.

chlorine demand 需氯量
It means the chlorine quantity consumed by sterilizing, oxidizing and other matters consuming chlorine in the process of disinfection by chlorine.

chlorine dioxide disposing agent 二氧化氯处理剂
It is one of disinfectants to disinfect water using chlorine dioxide as disposing agent, which is better than chlorine due to its low poison. It also can be used in the bleach of pulp and paper.

chlorine dioxide 二氧化氯
Chlorine dioxide, called Dyox, is an oxidant. Its formula is ClO2 and it is used to chlorine the drinking water, decolor the sewage of printing and dyeing, bleach the pulp and paper, disifect the processes of sewage treatment and food plants and so on. It is considered a green oxidant.

chlorine dioxide oxidation 二氧化氯氧化
It is an oxidation by chlorine dioxide that has substantial advantages over oxidation by chlorine in the treatment of drinking water in which the oxidation power of chlorine dioxide is not impaired over a wide range of pH, and is therefore not very sensitive to fluctuations in pH while the effectiveness of chlorine oxidation is very much dependent on the pH value, and at typical operating values of pH from 6 to 10, chlorine partially loses its oxidizing power. In addition, chlorine dioxide does not react with ammonia or nitrogenous compounds, whereas these react with chlorine to form chloramines. Finally, chlorine dioxide does not form trihalomethanes during oxidation of organic chemicals. All of these factors make oxidation by chlorine dioxide one of the techniques of choice for removing low levels of organic chemicals from water.

chlorine gas 氯气
It is an oxidant which is used as paper and pulp bleaching agents and for drinking water treatment.

chlorine oxidation 氯氧化
It is a water treatment technology that is used in a number of ways for detoxification including alkaline chlorination, chlorine dioxide, hypochlorites, and chlorinolysis.

chlorine poisoning 氯中毒

chlorine residual 余氯
It means the surplus chlorine, existing in water and having oxidized potential, after the process of disinfection disinfection by chlorine.

chlorization disinfection 氯化消毒

chlorobenzene 氯苯

chloroethylene 氯乙烯

chloroflurocarbons (CFCs) 氯氟烃
Those are the integer of compounds that contain chlorine, fluorin and carbon, which can destroy the ozone layer in air.

chloroform 氯仿
It is also known as trichoromethane with chemical formula CHCl3. It was used as anaesthetic before, and now it is not allowed because of its toxicity, but it can frequently be used as solvent and organic synthesis industries.

chlorophenoxy 氯代苯氧
It is a chemical substance belonging to a series of weedicides, such as dioxin.

chromatography 色谱分析
It is an analytic method to separate and measure multi-component mixtures accordance to their different distributive and fluid phrases of various substances.

chromic wastewater 含铬废水

chromium poisoning 铬中毒

chromium slags 铬渣
Those are solid wastes filtered out in the lixiviation process of metal chromium and chromium salt production, which are not dissolved in water, and the majority of which are heaped to wait for treating except the partbeing back to calcining material for reuse.

chromosome 染色体
It is a filiform structure existing in karyo-cell, which is the carrier of heredity gene.

chromosome aberration 染色体畸变

chromosome aberration assay 染色体畸变试验

chronic effect 慢性效应
It refers to an adverse effect on a human or animal in which symptoms recur frequently or develop slowly over a long period of time.

chronic exposure 持续照射
It refers to multiple exposures occurring over an extended period of time or over a significant fraction of an animal’s or human’s lifetime.

chronic poisoning 慢性中毒
(1)It means the poisoning caused by contacting poison with few doses for a long time and inhaling it into human body; (2)It refers to a serious effect, such as an illness or death, that occurs after prolonged exposure to small doses of a toxic substance.

circular clarifier 圆形澄清池

circular economy type 循环经济模式

circular perimeter flow grit setting tank 圆形周边运动沉砂池

circular wells (CWS)循环井处理法
It is an in-situ ground-water treatment technology where water is pumped from one interval in a well, treated within the well bore and released into another zone in the aquifer or unsaturated zone. In most cases, compressed air is injected into the lower screen of a well, which reduces water density causing upward flow, while air stripping volatile contminants.

city disease 城市病
It means a phenomenon which is caused when city infrastructures are too lagging to meet the developmental of population and industry in the city.

city fog 城市雾
It is the fog caused by atmospheric pollution in urban areas, which consists mainly of suspending particles, dusts and liquids.

cladding waste 包壳废物

clarified water 澄清水

clarifier 澄清池
Clarifier is the construct in which the processes of admixture, reaction and sedimentation take place simultaneously.

clarifying filter 澄清滤池
Clarifying filter is the combination of clarifier and filter, in which a filter layer is set in the rinsing area of clarifier to combine processes of mixing, reacting, settling, filtering together in a structure.

classification of atmosphere pollution source 大气污染源分类

classification of health care wastes 医疗废物分类

claus desulfurization 克劳斯法脱硫
Claus desulfurization is one of the old ways to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from exhaust gas. Hydrogen sulfide is oxided to SO2 and SO3, which can produce H2SO4.

clayization 粘土化过程

clay mineral 粘土矿物
It means any of various hydrous silicates that have a fine crystalline structure and are components of clay.

cleaner production (CP) 清洁生产
Cleaner production is the production process that is least harmful to human beings and environment.

clear-cutting 皆伐
It refers to a forest harvesting method in which all the trees in a large area are cut and removed.

clear well 清水池

climate concept 气候概念
Climate concept refers to the state of the atmosphere over a geographical area or for that matter the entire globe and is characterized by such factors ad average temperature, precipitation, and solar radiation over time spans of years, decades, centuries and millennia.

climatic change 气候变化
It means: (1) A significant change in the mean values of a meteorological element in the course of a certain period of time, where the means are taken over periods of the order of a decade or longer; (2) It encompasses all forms of climatic inconstancy, any differences between long-term statistics of the meteorological elements calculated for different periods but relating of their statistical nature or physical causes.

climatic type 气候型
It refers to the climatic of a region, characterized by a series of means and annual variations of temperature, precipitation and other elements.

climatic zone 气候带
It is the zone defined by the latitudinal distribution of the climate elements.

climatology 气候学
It is the study of the mean physical state of the atmosphere together with its statistical variation in both space and time as reflected in the weather behavior over a period of many years.

climax community 演替顶级群落
It refers to last stage of succession, where a relatively stable, long-lasting, complex, and interrelated community of plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria has been formed.

closed system 封闭系统
It is the system in which energy but not matter is exchange between the system and its environment.

closure of landfill 填埋场终场处理

cloud amount/cloud cover 云量
It is the fraction of the sky covered by the clouds of a certain genus, species, variety, layer, or combination of clouds.

cloud form 云状
It is the cloud type classification which has four main divisions: high clouds (6100~12200m); intermediate clouds (1980~6100m); low clouds (near ground level to 1980m); and clouds with vertical development (490~6100m).

coagulants 凝结剂

coagulation 混凝
It is a chemical process used to destabilize colloidal particles. Its exact mechanism is not well understood, but the general idea is to add a chemical which has positively charged colloids to water containing negatively charged colloids, thus this will neutralize the negative change on the colloids and thus reduce the tendency for the colloids to repel each other.

coal desulfurization 煤脱硫

coal dressing wastewater 洗煤废水

coal gasification 煤的气化
It is the process in which low heat or high heat value gases are produces by heating and increasing pressure or destroying the component of coal with catalyst.

coal liquefaction 煤的液化
It is the process in which coal is transferred to liquid product by chemical process.

coarse particle mode 粗粒模
It is a type of distribution of particle size or diameter, whose diameter scope is more than 2μm.

coastal landform 海滨地貌

coastward zone pollution 海岸带污染

coastward wind 向岸风,海风
It refers to the wine in coastal regions, blowing by day from a large water surface towards the land as a result of diurnal heating of the land surface.

coefficient of aquatic mobility 水迁移系数

coefficient of stream regime 河况系数

coevolution 共同进化
It refers to evolution in which two or more species interact and exert selective pressures on each other that can lead each species to undergo various adaptations.

coke oven gas (COG) 焦炉煤气
It is the mixture of permanent gases produced by the carbonization of coal in a coke oven at temperatures in excess of 1000 degrees Celsius.

cold air mass 冷气团
It is defined as the transition zone where a cold air mass is replacing a warmer air mass.

coliform bacteria 大肠杆菌
Coliform bacteria index is an index, which is used to asses the level of water, soil, dairy products or cold drink an others polluted by the human and livestock deject.

coliform bacteria value 大肠菌值

coli index 大肠菌指数

collecting area 集流面积

collecting electrode 集尘极
Collecting electrode usually refers to the grounding electrode of electrostatic precipitator.

collection of municipal solid wastes 城市生活垃圾收集

colon bacillus 大肠杆菌

colorimetric analysis 比色分析

color index (CI) 比色指数

color temperature 色温
Color temperature is an index, which denotes the color of heating radiation light source.

combined chlorine residual 化合性余氯

combined evakuation 组合评价

combined sewage system 合流制排水系统
It is the system to discharge domestic sewage, industrial wastewater and rainwater in the same pipeline.

combined sewers 合流式下水道

combustion 燃烧
It is the fast chemical action between combustible substance and oxygen at higher temperature, accompanying light and heat releasing.

combustion desulfurization 燃烧中脱硫

combustion noise 燃烧噪声

co-metabolism 共代谢

commensalisms 共生,共栖
It means a relationship between two kinds of organisms in which one benefits from the relationship and the benefits from the relationship and the other is neither helped or hurt.

commercial extinction 商业灭绝
It means depletion of the population of a wild species used as a resource to a level at which it is no longer profitable to harvest the species.

comminutor 粉碎机
It is one of the grinding machines used for grinding or cutting materials into small sizes.

common resources 共有资源

common species 常见种
Common species indicate the species which have many numbers in the community such as sheep and horse.

community 群落
It means a group of plants and animals living and interacting with one another inspecific region under relatively similar environmental conditions.

community environment 聚落环境
Community is a center where people live together and take activities. Community environment includes courtyard environment, village environment and city environment.

companion species 伴生种

compensation for the loss caused by pollution 赔偿污染损失

compensation point 补偿点
It is the balance point when photosynthesis is equal to the respiration.

competition 竞争
It means the situation that exists when different individuals, populations, or species compete for the same resources and the presence of one has a detrimental effect on the other.

competitive exclusion principle竞争排斥原理
It is the idea that two population of different species with exactly the same requirements cannot persist indefinitely in the same habitat.

complete consumption coefficient of water resources 水资源完全消耗系数

complete mixed aeration basin 完全混合曝气池
It is the facility in which mixed liquid is agitated adequately and mixed fully and evenly.

complete medium 完全培养基

complex formation titration 配位滴定法

complex pollution 多重污染
It is the environmental pollution that has the severely bad influence on the human body and the animals as well as plants when various kinds of primary and secondary pollutants exist at the same time.

composite pollution 混合型污染
Composite pollution includes aerosols coming from flue gas, dust, sulfur dioxide and other oxides which are discharged by coal as a main pollutant resource, as well as pollutants of alkene or nitrogen-dioxide which are discharged by petroleum as a main pollutant resource.

composite sample 综合水样
It is the sample mixed by a series of grab samples taken from different sample points at the same time for some purposes.

compost 混合肥料,堆肥
It is the partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer.

compost filter basin 堆肥滤池
It is a kind of method to dispose gaseous pollutants by using the microbes of compost.

composting 堆肥处理
An aerobic biodegradation scheme operated in a “solid state” format. Solid state means that the compost material behaves as porous solid with a moisture content of 50 to 60 percent and through which air can be drawn to supply oxygen and remove evaporated water.

composting disposal 堆肥处理
Composting disposal, as one solution to the problems of sludge disposal and solid waste management, is the aerobic decomposition of organic matter by microorganisms, primarily bacteria and fungi, which may take place naturally under controlled conditions or in mechanized composting plants.

composting equipment 堆肥设备
It means the biochemical reaction equipment of composting, which is the main part of composting system.

composting facilities 堆肥处理装置

composting of organic wastes 有机垃圾堆肥法

composting process 堆肥工艺
It refers to sequencing and continuous ferment processes of composting.

composting toilet 堆肥厕所

comprehensive evaluation of environmental quality 环境质量综合指数
It is the quantitative scale that reflects generally the advantageous or disadvantageous degree of area environmental quantity based on certain welding standard and calculation method.

comprehensive rehabilitation planning of urban environment 城市环境综合整治规划
It means that the target and measures of environment pollution integrated treatment are made considering mutual influences of economy, population, resources, environment, energy in a city.

comprehensive utilization of coal 煤的综合利用

comprehensive utilization of sludge 污泥综合利用
It is the measure to resolve the sludge and transform waste to useful matter.

compressed natural gas vehicle 压缩天然气汽车
It is the vehicle to use compressed natural gas as fuel, which is a friendly environmental vehicle. Now vehicles in many cities use gradually compressed natural gas to reduce NOx, SOx and other pollutant discharge.

concentration 浓缩

concentration factor 浓缩因子
It is the volume ratio of radioactive wastewater before and after treatment.

concentration multiple 浓缩倍数
It means the ratio of salt content in circulated water and salt content in offset water in the operating process of cooling system.

concentration of residuals 残余物浓度

condensation nucleus 凝结核
It refers to aerosol particle being able to function as the coagulating core in the coagulating, whose diameter is generally less than 0.1μm commonly.

conditioning 调节

conducted interference 传导干扰
It is the electromagnetic interference imported by communal impedance between interference source and disturbed part.

conductometric titration 电导滴定法
It refers to a way to measure the concentration of substances in which the standard solution is titrated into the measured sample and the end point of the titration is indicated according to the change of electronic conductivity. It is used widely in environmental analysis and evaluation.

confined water 承压水
It is the aquifer which has a layer of rock or soil above it.

coniferous evergreen plants 常绿针叶植物
It refers to the cone-bearing trees such as spruces, pines, and firs that keep some of their narrow, pointed leaves all year.

coniferous trees 针叶树
It refers to cone-bearing trees, mostly evergreens, that have needle-shaped or scalelike leaves.

conservation 养护,保养
It refers to the sensible and careful use of natural resources to protect younger generation’s benefit.

conservation of energy 能量守恒
It is a principle that states that energy can never be created or destroyed, but only changed in form.

conservation of nature 自然保护

conservation substances 恒定的物质

constant of river reoxygenation 河流富氧常数

constant pressure evaporation 常压蒸发

constructed wetlands 人工湿地
A constructed wetland is an artificial marsh or swamp, created for human use, such as wastewater or sewage treatment, as habitat to attract wildlife, or for land reclamation after mining or other disturbance.

construction guideline for landfill 填埋场建设标准
Construction monitoring indicates the activities to test the level of vibration, noises, dusts or harmful gases in the process of construction, in order to prevent the construct pollution and disturbance to civilians.

construction monitoring 施工监测

construction noise 建筑施工噪声
It is the noise interfering surrounding life environment, which is produced when the construction machine operates during the constructing period.

consumers 消费者
It means a heterotrophic organism that ingests other organisms or organic matter in a food chain.

contact aeration basin 接触曝气池
It is a combination of biological filter and aeration basin. When wastewater flows through stuffing at a certain velocity and aeration is performed at the same time, the biological membrane in stuffing can adsorb and oxidize the organics in wastewater.

contact filter 接触滤池
It is one of the filters in which raw water does not precipitate but filters directly through it.

containing-stabilization 大型包胶技术

contaminate 污染物
Contaminate illustrates any physical, chemical, biological or radioactive pollutants cased by human activities or natural processes which have harmful influence on air, water or soil.

contamination 污染
Since the human activities and natural processes induced the entering of microbes, chemicals or other toxic substances into water, air and other wasters at a certain concentration, it will further endanger environment or the health and conform of human body. This is called contanmination.

contamination by fungal toxin 霉菌毒素污染

continental climate 大陆性气候
It is the climate characteristic of the interior of a continent marked by large annual and daily temperature ranges, low relative humidity and moderate or small irregular rainfall.

continental environmental remote sensing 陆地环境遥感
It refers to a technology of environment remote sensing by using the information support, and employing continental satellite to demonstrate the change of reflected light energy due to the difference change of water quality in large area.

continuous analyzer for nitrogen oxides 氮氧化物自动分析仪
It is a device measuring continuously the concentration of nitrogen oxides in air or the effluent gas of the polluting source.

continuous analyzer for sulfur dioxide 二氧化硫自动分析仪
It is a device measuring continuously and automatically the sulfur dioxide in air.

continuous countercurrent decantation (CCD) 连续逆流冲洗

continuous stack monitoring(CSM) 连续烟道监测

control of automobile engine emission 汽车尾气污染控制
It is the purification measure to reduce pollutant quantity in automobile engine emission and transform harmful components in automobile engine emission to innoxious substances.

control of food pollution 食品污染防治

control of flue gas from MSW incineration 垃圾焚烧尾气净化
It is the various measures to remove various pollutants in flue gas from MSW incinderation by the methods, such as dust collecting, scrubbing and so on.

control of gaseous pollutants 气态污染治理

control of gaseous pollutants by absorption 吸收法净化气态污染物
It is the mass transfer process, in which some solutions or solvents are used to absorb harmful components in waste gas to separate them from waste gas.

control of gaseous pollutants by combustion 燃烧法净化气态污染物
It is the technology process in which the components of hydrocarbon in waste gas are transformed to CO2 and H2O effectively by the process of heat oxidation.

control of gaseous pollutants by condensation 冷凝法净化气态污染物
It is the technology, in which harmful gas or vapor condenses to liquid with the decrease of the temperature of industrial waste gas so as to separate it form waste gas by the characteristics that substances have different saturated vapor pressures at different temperatures.

control of hydrogen sulfide by adsorption 吸附法控制硫化氢
It is the purification method to use solid adsorbent to adsorb hydrogen sulfide, and to transform it to element sulfur and water under the conditions of oxygen existing.

control of hydrogen sulfide by adsorption oxidation process 吸收氧化法控制硫化氢

control of water body pollution 水体污染控制

control system of waste gas 废气控制系统

convective process 对流过程

conventional activated sludge process 普通活性污泥法

conventional pollutants 常规污染物
Conventional pollutants are well known pollutants listed by law, which can be divided into 9 categories: solid pollutants, aerobic pollutants, toxic pollutants, nutritious pollutants, biological pollutants, acid or alkaline pollutants, oily pollutants and heat pollutants.

convergence 收敛,辅合
It is the contraction of a vector field, divergence of negative sign.

cooling tower 冷却塔(凉水塔)
It is the cooling treatment structure for water circulation used for water-vapor heat exchange.

cooling treatment system 冷却处理系统
It is the treatment system to cool waste heat water produced in industrial production process.

cooling treatment system for water circulation 循环水冷却处理系统

coordinate compound 配位化合物
It is the compound composed of a cored element and complex ions combined by several ligands through coordinate bond.

copper catalyst 废铜催化剂

copper-rich dust from steel making plant 冶炼厂含铜烟尘

core sample 核芯样本
It is one of the grab samplers. The most crucial aspect of core sampler’s design is the retention of the core on removal from the sediment environment.

core sampler 挖核取样器

corona discharge 电晕放电

correlation 相关关系
Correlation is the relative relationship of two variables (x and y) usually used in the statistic data in the investigation research of environment science.

cosmic environment 宇宙环境

cost-benefit analysis (CBA) 成本效应分析
It is a crude analysis which crudely attempted to place a monetary value upon non-economic variables such as the destruction of marine ecosystems or the social and health impacts of air pollution. As a consequence of such restricted analysis, many developments resulted in unforeseen harmful impacts which reduced predicted benefits.

cost-effectivness analysis 有效成本分析

cost function of unit process of water treatment 水处理单元过程费用函数
It means the function relationship between the investment (operating expense) of water supply treatment or sewage treatment and basic variables.

cost of function of sewage pipes 排水管道费用函数
It is the function relationship between the investment or operating expense of discharged pipelines and their basic variables.

cost of function of water supply pipes 给水管道费用函数
It is the function relationship the investment or operating expense of water supply pipelines and their basic variables.

coulometric analysis 库伦分析
It is an analysis method of electrochemical titration to carry out the quantitative analysis by measuring the electronic quantity consumed by the product for some electrode reaction or by measuring the quantitative electron reaction of the analyzed sample. It is used widely in environmental analysis and evaluation.

coupled interference 耦合干扰

course monitoring 过程监测
The process to monitor a whole process of pollutant from its origin to its vanish is called course monitoring.

courtyard environment 院落环境

covariance 协方差

crime of causing major environmental pollution accident 重大环境污染事故罪

crime of illegally dumping, piling up, or treating solid waste from abroad 非法处置进口的固体废物罪

crime of importing solid waste without permission 擅自进口固体废物罪

criteria for environmental quality 环境质量标准

criteria for noise control 噪声控制标准

critical concentration range 临界浓度范围
It refers to the range between the maximum and minimum concentrations of some pollutant to cause all test animals to survive in 48 hours, and to result in all test animals to die in 24 hours.

critical damping 临界阻尼
It is the minimum damping, which can cause a mechanical system with partial displacement to return to former position but not to vibrate.

critical load 临界负荷
It is the highest level of pollution which will not cause permanent harm to the environment.

critical speed 临界速度
It refers to the rotation velocity of a rotation system corresponding to the resonance frequency of system.

critical wind of menace 临界危险风速

crops wastes 作物废物
It indicates the residue after crop harvest, including sorghum stalk, hemp stalk, corn stalk, cotton stalk, rice busk, wheat straw, rice straw and so on.

cross-section diagram analysis 剖面图分析

crude birth rate 总出生率
It is annual number of live births per1000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.

crude death rate 总死亡率
It is annual number of death per1000 people in the population of a geographic area at the midpoint of a given year.

crushing of solid wastes 固体废弃物破碎

crustal movement 地壳运动
It is a movement resulting from or causing deformation of the earth’s crust.

crust balance theory 地壳均衡理论

cultural environment 文化环境

cumulate consume coefficient 完全消耗系数

Cunningham correction factor 坎宁汉因数
It is the correction factor used for calculating the resistance of small diameter particle in air.

cut and power 分割-功率关系
It is the relationship of the cut diameter of scrubber with the power input into scrubber.

cut diameter for particles 分割粒径

cut diameter method 分割直径法

cyanic wastewater 含氰废水

cyanide 氰化物

cyanide oxidation 氰化物氧化
It is an oxidation process removing both cyanide and metals in cyanide containing wastewaters. Typically the hydrogen peroxide oxidation process is applicable to cyanide-bearing wastewaters, especially those containing metal-cyanide complexed.

cyanobacteria 单细胞原核微生物
It means single celled, prokaryotic, microscopic organisms. Before being reclassified as monera, they were called blue-green algae.

cycles per minute (cpm) 转每分钟

cyclic activated sludge technology 循环式活性污泥法

cyclic economy 循环经济
It is to apply the rule of ecology to guide economic activities of human society, which is an economic development model being harmonious with the environment.

cyclone 气旋
It means the region of the atmosphere in which the pressures are lower than those of the surrounding region at the same level.

cyclone collector 旋风除尘器

cyclones 旋风分离器
Cyclones are round conically vessels to remove particulate matter from gas stream, in which the gas stream enters tangentially and follows a spiral path to the outlet, and the spiral motion produces the centrifugal that cause the particulate matter to toward the periphery of the vessel and collect on the walls and fall to bottom of the vessel. The centrifugal force is the major force causing separation of the particulate in a cyclone separator.

cyclone separator 旋风分离器
It is one of the devices to remove dusts or solid particles from gas streams.

cyclone spray scrubber 中心喷雾旋风洗涤器
It is one of the centrifugal scrubbers. Its center has spraying perforated pipes and the enters the scrubber from the bottom tangentially.

cyclone water film scrubber 旋风水膜洗涤器

cylindrical wave 柱面波

[ 本帖最后由 liping1019 于 2008-12-4 19:20 编辑 ]

实习生 发表于 2008-12-23 14:31:55

版主的学习精神让人佩服,下了学习。

liping1019 发表于 2009-1-25 16:02:22

d部分

damage function 损害函数
It is a function to express or reflect the effect of damage activity such as water and air pollution on natural resources or human health.

damped natural frequency 阻尼固有频率
It is the free vibration frequency of mechanical system with damping.

damping 阻尼
It is the phenomenon that energy decreases or loses with time or distance.

damping coefficient 阻尼结构
It means the construct that damping material and component part are combined together to consume vibration energy.

damping control 阻尼控制

damping materials 阻尼(减振)
Damping materials or structures are those that have some viscous properties, which tends to bend or distort slightly, thus consuming part of the noise energy in molecular motion.

damping ratio 阻尼比
It is the ratio of actual damping and critical damping in the mechanical system with viscous damping.

dangerous waste 危险废物

dashpot 减振器

data collection and analysis 数据采集与分析

data presentation 提交数据
It is one of the four clearly definable steps for environmental or chemical analysis where it is usually necessary to modify raw analytical results so as to present them in a form which can provide meaningful information to the user, and the form of data presentation can be either tabular or graphical representation.

data reduction techniques 数据归纳(概括)技术
In the statistic analysis of EIA, data reduction techniques are the data process techniques cataloging, classifying, or partitioning enormous amounts of data from several different data structures to produce a new, more manageable, data structure.

data updating 数据更新

DDT 二氯二苯三氯乙烷,滴滴涕
DDT is a kind of organic chlorine pesticide, and it is a typical, perpetual residue pesticide with high efficiency. It was a most widely used hygeian pesticide in the world.

DDVP 敌敌畏
DDVP is a kind of high efficient organic phosphor pesticide with its chemical name “O, O-dimethyl (2, 2-dichloro ethylene) phosphoric ester”.

dead room 消声室

decay coefficient 衰减系数
It indicates the decay rate coefficient of pollutant concentration of organic pollutant and the oxidation-reduction and adhesion settling of inorganic pollutant in water.

decay organism 腐化性生物

decibel (dB) 分贝
It is a scale pf values for a decibel meter. The scale starts at zero dB, which represents to the softest sound that is audible to the human ear. Each tenfold increase in sound intensity is represented by an additional 10 Db.

decibel meter 分贝仪
A decibel meter, which responds to sound pressure, is the instrument that measures sound.

deciduous plants 落叶植物
It refers to the trees, such as oaks and maples, and other plants that survive during dry seasons or cold seasons by shedding their leaves.

decision of the state council on environmental protection 《国务院关于环境保护工作的决定》

decision of the state council on further strengthening the environmental protection 《国务院关于进一步加强环境保护工作的决定》

decision of the state council on several issues concerning the environment protection 《国务院关于环境保护若干问题的决定》

decision of the state council on strengthening environment protection during the adjustment of national economy 《国务院关于在国民经济调整时期加强环境保护工作的决定》

decision on trade and environment 《关于环境与贸易的决定》

declaration and registration system of pollution discharge 排污申报登记制度

decoloration 脱色
It is the water treatment technology to reduced or remove colourity of natural water and wastewater, induding physical, chemical and biological methods of decoloration.

decomposedness degree of compost 腐熟度标准

decomposer 分解者

decontamination 净化,消除……的污染

decontamination factor 去污因子
It refers to the decreased radioactive magnitude after the treatment of radioactive wastewater.

deep well aeration method 深井曝气法

deep well injection 深井灌注
It is a process by which waste fluids are injected deep below the surface of the earth.

deforestation 采伐森林,森林开伐
I means the removal of forest stands by cutting and burning to provide land for agricultural purposes, residential or industrial building sites, roads, ect. , or by harvesting the trees for building materials or fuel.

degradable pollutant 可降解污染物
It is the potentially polluting chemical that can be broken down completely or reduced to acceptable levels by natural physical, chemical, and biological processes.

dehalogenation 脱卤

dehydrator 脱水器
It is a device used to remove water in sludgy and other substances.

deinking of used paper 短程废纸脱墨法
It is a new deniking method proposed by Fergusion and Woodward of USA in the 1990s.

deionized water 去离子水

deleterious secondary effeats 有害的二次影响

delta 三角洲
It is similar deposit at the mouth of a tidal inlet, caused by tidal currents.

deltaaminolevulinia acid dehydratase δ-氨基乙酰丙酸脱氢酶
It is one kind of enzyme which exists in many kinds of organization’s cytoplasm.

demand aeration tank intermittent aeration tank system DAI-IAT工艺

demand elasticity 需求弹性
It is the changeable ratio corresponding to demand induced due to the change of price or income.

demister 除雾器
It is the equipment to separate gas from liquid in the exhaust of gas-liquid contacting equipment.

denitrification 反硝化作用,脱氮作用
It means the conversion of nitrate to molecular nitrogen by the action of bacteria-an important step in the nitrogen cycle.

density-dependant factor (种群增长)依赖于密度的因素,密度制约因子
It refers to those limiting factors that become more severe as the size of the population increases.

density-independant factor (种群增长)不依赖于密度的因素,非密度制约因子
It refers to the factors which affect the population of a species which are not affected by the actual population size of the species.

dental fluorosis 氟斑牙
It is one of the dental diseases induced by a high content of fluorine in drinking water.

deoxygenation by algae respiration 水生植物呼吸作用耗氧
It is the process of consuming oxygen in water because of the respiration of water plants, algae and so on.

deoxyribo nucleic acid (DNA) 脱氮核糖酸

depletion of resources 资源消耗
It indicates a depletion process in which a material or fuel is depleted, or used up, as it becomes less available for its intended function.

deposit-refund system 预付金返还(系统)

depth aeration 深水曝气
It is the aeration when the water depth in an aeration pool exceeds that of conventional one, which is widely used in biological treatment of wastewater.

depth dose 深度剂量

desalination 脱盐作用,海水淡化
It refers to the removal of salts from seawater or brackish water so that the water can be used for purposes such as agriculture, industrial processes, or human consumption.

desalination of seawater 海水淡化
It means the process removing salts from ocean or brackish water by using various technologies.

desalted feedwater treatment 给水除盐处理
It is the treatment process to reduce total quantity of dissolved salts in water, which can be fulfilled by unit operation of vaporization, crystallization and so on.

desert 荒漠
It is a dry, often sandy region of little rainfall, extreme temperatures, and sparse vegetation.

desertification 荒漠化,沙漠化
It is the process of enhancement and extension of desert condition, in which lots of green fields, agricultural cropland, water as well soil turn to desert-like landscape gradually, finally become useless.

desilting basin 沉砂池
It is the device to remove sand in water by the method free sedimentation, which is used in solid-liquid separation process.

desorption by displace 置换脱附
It is one of the desorptions. It is a method to substitute the original ansorption material by using a sorbent with stronger intimity under desoption condition.

desorption by evacuating 降压脱附
It is the adsorption method that the pressure near saturated adsorbent decreases to desorb adsorbate on adsorbent.

desorption by heating 升温脱附

desorption by stripping 汽提脱附

destruction 污染物的结构破坏

desulfurization 脱硫

desulfurization by electron beam irradiation 电子束辐照脱硫

desulfurization by fluidized bed combustion 流化床燃烧脱硫

desulfurization by lime and limestone 石灰-石灰石法脱硫

desulfurization by sea magnesium oxide 氧化镁法脱硫

desulfurization by sea water 海水脱硫
Desulfurization by seawater is to utilize alkalinity existing in seawater to absorb SO2 in flue.

desulfurization of heavy oil 重油脱硫
It is the measure to get rid of sulfur in heavy oil before burning.

detailed regulations for implementation of the law of the people’s republic of china on prevention and control of water pollution《中华人民共和国水污染防治法实施细则》

detection limit 检出限
It is the minmum concentration or content measured or detected in the substance of sample to be detectable.

detention time 停留时间

detoxication 解毒作用
It is the function of organism, which can transform toxic substance in environment to nontoxic or low toxic one.

detrimental effects 有害影响


detritivore 食碎屑者,食腐质者
It refers to the consumer organism that feeds on detritus, parts of dead organisms. The two principle types are detritus feeders and decomposers.

detritus 碎屑,腐殖质
It means the parts of dead organisms and cast-off fragments and wastes of living organisms.

detritus feeder 食碎屑动物
It is organism that extracts nutrients from fragments of dead organisms and wastes. Examples are earthworms, termites, and crabs.

dewatering 脱水
Devices that used to macerate wastewater solid (rags, paper, plastic, and other materials) by revolving cutting bars are called comminutors.

dew point temperature 露点温度
It refers to the saturation temperature corresponding to vapor in air.

diammonium phosphate (DAP) 磷酸二铵

diapause 滞育
It is a period during which growth or development is suspended and physiological activity is diminished, as in certain insects in response to adverse environmental conditions.

diatomaceous earth filtration 硅藻土过滤
It is the water treatment process to mainly utilize mechanical screening function to treat water containing small suspended solids by suing diatomaceous earth layer as coatings of filtering layer.

dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) 二氯三苯三氯乙烷

dichloroethylene 二氯乙烯
It is a colorless and noncombustible liquid, with the similar odor of chloroform fragrant.

dichromate value 重铬酸盐指数
It refers to a criterion of environmental analysis and evaluation in which the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of oxygen-demanded contamination in water is measured by using potassium dichromate as the oxidizing agent.

di-cyclic aromatic hydrocarbon 双环芳烃

diethanolamine (DEA)二乙醇胺

differential reproduction 差异生殖
It means a phenomenon in which individuals with adaptative genetic traits produce more living offspring than do individuals without such traits.

diffused lighting 漫射照明

diffuse reflection 漫反射
It refers to a phenomenon that the incident light is reflected in many directions without depending on the direction of incident light.

diffuse solar radiation 太阳散射辐射

diffuse sound field 扩散声场
It refers to the sound field where energy density is even ,and distributes irregularly in every transmitting direction.

diffusing mixer 扩散混合器

diffusion 扩散
It is the process by which molecules intermingle as a result of their random thermal motion. Spreading or scattering of a gaseous or liquid material.

diffusion aerator 扩散沉积

diffusion fractor 漫透射

diffusion pipe for sewage discharge 污水排放扩散管

diffusiophoresis 扩散电泳现象
It is the particle’s net movement caused by the unevenness of gaseous molecules suspending in gas.

digested sludge 熟污泥

digestive gas storage tank of sludge 污泥消化气罐

digital measurement technique 数字测量技术

digital signal processing (DSP)数字信号处理
It is the digital technology to collect, store, transport and transform signals.

di-isopropanolamine (DIPA) 二异丙醇胺

dilution 稀释
It is a minor component of input material changes and is exemplified by used of more dilute plating solutions to minimize dragout.

dilution ratio 稀释比

dimethy terephthalate (DMT) 二甲基对苯二酸盐

dioxin 二噁英
It is a kind of acute substance which belongs to polychlorinated biphenyl, including two kind matters such as poly chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and PCNFs.

dioxin control 二噁英控制

dioxin nuisance 二噁英公害

dioxins 二噁英类
Dioxins are a kind of strong carcinogen which can be formed in the incomplete combustion of chlorine and chlorine compounds present.

direct consumption coefficient of water resources 水资源直接消耗系数

direct contact condenser 直接接触冷凝器
It is the condenser, in which condensation is conducted by the direct contact of cooled gas and cooling liquid or freezing liquid.

direct-flame 直接燃烧
It is to burn directly the combustible harmful contents of waste gas as fuel.

direct interception 拦截

directional wells 水平井
It is a drilling technique which is used to position wells horizontally, or at an angle, to reach contaminants not accessible by direct vertical drilling.

directivity 指向性
It refers to that the response of transducer as the function for emission and incidence wave direction at the fixed plane of sound center.

directivity factor 指向性因素

directivity index 指向性指数

direct pollutant discharge coefficient 直接污染物排放系数

direct regulations 直接管理(控制)
Direct regulations are concern about zoning regulations; prohibition, or zero discharge; and effluent standards.

direct solar radiation 太阳直照辐射

direct sound field 直达声场

discharge 流量
It means the volume of water flowing through a given point in a stream channel in a given period of time.

discharge curve 流量过程
It is a curve that expresses the relation between the discharge of a stream or open conduit at a given location and the stage or elevation of the liquid surface at or near that location.

discharge location 排放点

discharge ratio 排放系数
It is the ratio of discharging water amount and receiving water amount in an industrial enterprise.

discomfort index 不舒适指数
It is a synthetically reflected index of the discomfort feeling produced by air temperature and humidity to human body.

disequilibrium 不均衡

disinfection 消毒
Disinfection such as chlorination or ozoanation, is a wastewater treatment technique which ensures that water is free of harmful bacteria.

disinfection by ammonium chloride 氯化铵消毒
Disinfection by ammonium chloride is the water treatment method using ammonium chloride as disinfector.

disinfection by bleaching powder 漂白粉消毒
Disinfection by bleaching powder is the water treatment method using bleaching extract as disinfectors.

disinfection by chlorine 加氯消毒
Disinfection by chlorine is the water disinfection treatment technology using chlorine as disinfector.

disinfection by chlorine dioxide 二氧化氯消毒
Disinfection by chlorine dioxide is the water treatment method using chlorine dioxide as disinfector.

disinfection by hydrogen peroxide 过氧化氢消毒
Disinfection by hydrogen peroxide is the water treatment method to use hydrogen peroxide for disinfection.

disinfection by ozone 臭氧消毒
Disinfection by ozone is the water treatment technology using ozone as disinfector.

disinfection by sodium hypochliorine 次氯酸钠消毒
It is the water treatment method using sodium bypochliorine (NaClO) as disinfector.

disinfection with ultraviolet rays 紫外线消毒
It is the technology to utilize ultraviolet rays with 2000~2950A wavelength for disinfection.

disperation 扩散

dispersion 扩散,弥散,分散
It means the pattern in which animals or plants are found over a wide area.

dispersion models 分散模型
Dispersion models are the mathematic models used in air monitoring for assessing air quality in EIA.

disposability 可处置性

dissolution 溶滤作用

dissolved air flotation(DAF) 溶解空气浮选
It is a process for recovering suspended material or for reclaiming water for reuse, and for their thickening prior to dewatering and further disposal as well as treatment of slurries and sludges, which is applied for the clarification of wastewater to meet effluent discharge requirements.

dissolved organism 溶解性有机物

dissolved oxygen(DO) 溶解氧
It is the molecular oxygen dissolved in water, whose amount is directly related to the atmosphere pressure, the partial pressure of oxygen in air, the water temperature and many other factors.

dissolved oxygen meter 溶解氧测定仪

dissolved oxygen sag curve 氧垂曲线
It indicates dissolved oxygen declining and rising again.

dissolved solids 溶解性固体物

distance between collecting electrodes 板间距
It means the distance between the same electrodes of electrostatic precipitator.

distillation 汽提

distillery wastewater 蒸馏厂废水

divergence 辅散
It means the expansion or spreading out of a vector field.

divergence attenuation 发散衰减
It refers to the attenuation of sound energy in some direction when sound wave transmits in even, ideal, immobile medium of free space.

divergence attenuation in landscape 绿化声衰减
It refers to the attenuation produced due to sound waves scattered and absorbed by leaves and grassplot when transmit in afforest zone.

divergent evolution 分裂演进
It means that organisms with the same ancestral genetic heritage migrate to different habitats and evolve into species with different external forms and structures, but typically continue to use the same kind of habitats. The ostrich and the emu are believed to be examples of divergent evolution.

diversity 多样性
It is richness of the number of species.

diversity of habitat 栖息地多样性
It means the number of kinds of habitats in a given unit area.

diversity of species 物种多样性
It means the variety of species in an area or on the earth.

diving 潜水

Dixon test 狄克逊检测法
It is one of the mathematical statistic methods which examines stray data, which is used in environmental analysis.

DNA repair DNA修复
It is the total name of the continuous repair function of injured DNA formed to adapt environment and prevent gene mutation so as to maintain the stability of heredity information in the organism endless evolution.

domestication of activated sludge 活性污泥驯化
It refers to the transformation process to domesticate the mature activated sludge of domestic sewage to the sludge having an ability to treat special industrial wastewater.

domestic potable water 生活饮用水
Domestic potable water is the water people can drink in their daily lives.

domestic sewage 家庭污水
Domestic sewage refers to wastewater from residential areas including kitchen, bath, laundry, and floor drain wastes.

domestic wastewater 生活废水
Domestic wastewater is the wastewater coming from living quarters (mainly produced by cleanness and sanitation) not from manufacture.

dominant lethal mutation test 显性致死突变试验

dominant species 优势物种
It generally means the species that are most abundant in an area, ecological community, or ecosystem,

dormancy 休眠
It means the state of an animal or plant, where metabolism is slowed during a certain period of the year.

dosage 剂量
It is the quantity that druggery, poisoning, biological product or physical factors like radial are used in organism and can bring certain function.

dose-response cure 剂量-反应曲线

dose-response relationship 剂量-反应关系
It indicates the relationship between the dose of pollutant and the reaction of organism.

double-degradation plastic products 双降解塑料产品
It refers to a series of products made by plastics which can be degraded not only by light but also by the microbe.

double layer filter 双层滤料滤池
It is a water treatment structure. The filtering media in a filter are divided into two layers in water gravity filtration.

double layer setting tank 双层沉淀池

dragout 废酸洗液
Dragout is the pollutions that a liquid residue after acid washing.

drainage 排水

drainage environment 流域环境
It is the catchments area surrounded by surface water and underground water watershed line.

drawdown pumping 降深抽水
It means a pumping method by which the pump is located below the water table to remove water.

drawn turbine floatation 叶轮吸气气浮法
It is the floatation water treatment process that works based on the intake function of high speed running turbine (impeller).

dripping apparatus 淋水装置
It is the installation or facility to enhance the heat and humidity exchange between water and air by enlarging the contacting area and time as much as possible in the circulating water cooling system.

dripping density 淋水密度
It is the dripping quantity per unit effective area per unit time in a tower.

drown waste residue in field 废渣投田
It means dispersing and throwing the waste residue into the existing cultivation field.

drug deodorizing 药物脱臭
It indicates deodorized reactions between chemicals and stink.

dry 干燥地区,干旱地区
It refers to a desert or other area with an arid climate that has little precipitation.

dry adiabatic process 干绝热过程
It is an adiabatic process in a hypothetical atmosphere in which no moisture is present.

dry analysis 干法分析

dry bulb temperature 干球温度
It refers to the temperature that ordinary thermometer suspending in air and without radiation influence indicates.

dry catalytic oxidation process of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) 干式催化氧化法脱硫
It is the method to utilize the catalytic and transforming function of solid catalysts to desulfurize.

dry denitrification 干法脱氮
Dry denitrification is a denitrification technology which can be divided into two categories: one is called catalytic reducing process, and the other is called adsorption.

dry deposition 干沉降
It is a process in which air pollutants are transferred to the earth’s surface under circumstance of rainfall.

dry deposition velocity 干沉积速度
It is the radio of dry deposition quantity to particle concentration near the earth.

dry-friction damping 干(摩擦)阻尼
Dry-friction damping means the phenomenon of energy loss produced on the contact plane when two solids are contact mutually and move relatively.

drying beds 干化床

drying lagoons 干化塘

dry oxidative deodorization 干法氧化脱臭
Both combustion and catalytic oxidation belongs to dry oxidative deodorization.

dry process of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) 干法脱硫
Dry process of FGD is the flue gas desulfurization method to use powdered or granular absorbent, adsorbent or catalyst to remove SO2 in flue.

dry scrubbers 干涤气器
It means a pollution control equipment used to remove contaminants, in either gaseous or particulate forms, from air emissions.

dry weather flow 晴天污水(流出物)

dual-alkali process 双碱流程
It is the desulfurization method to adopt aqueous solutions of alkali metals salt (NH+, Na+, K+) and lime to absorb SO2 in flue and regenerate the rich solution absorbing SO2, respectively.

dual medium 双层滤料

dual phase extraction (DPE) 两相萃取
Dual-phase extraction, also known as multi-phase extraction, is a technology that uses a high vacuum system to remove both contaminated groundwater and soil vapor.

dual water supply 双管给水

dump 垃圾场

dumping of municipal solid wastes 城市生活垃圾堆放处置法

duplicate samples 平行样

dust 灰尘

dust characteristic 粉尘的特性

dust collection system 灰尘系统设计

dust electrical resistivity 颗粒物比电阻
It is the resistance of 1cm2 dust with 1cm thickness.

dust exhaust hood design 吸尘罩设计

dust separator train 除尘器组

dynamic balance 动态平衡

dynamic material 阻尼材料
It is the material with high inner damping.

dynamic range 动态范围
It is the difference between the overloaded sound pressure level of electricsound transducer used for receiving sound and the equivalent noise pressure level.

[ 本帖最后由 liping1019 于 2009-1-25 16:11 编辑 ]

wuchunxiu 发表于 2009-5-7 22:21:42

好长阿
弄个附件不也是很好吗

wangbch888 发表于 2011-12-22 10:54:26

G :lol :victory: 学习
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